Handbook of Energy Engineering Calculations features worked-out examples and enables you to obtain accurately results with minimum time and effort. HANDBOOK OF. ENERGY ENGINEERING. CALCULATIONS. Tyler G. Hicks, RE. Editor. International Engineering Associates. Member: American Society of. It was set in Times Roman by Each section of this handbook is designed to furnish comprehensive Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers - DoomzDay.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Portuguese|
|Genre:||Fiction & Literature|
|ePub File Size:||28.61 MB|
|PDF File Size:||10.37 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
Handbook of Energy Engineering, Sixth Edition · Read more Handbook Of Financing Energy Projects · Read more Handbook of Reliability Engineering. Now in its sixth edition, the Handbook of Energy Engineering is a valuable For the purposes of calculating life cycle cost calculations, the time period will. SOLVE ENERGY PROBLEMS QUICKLY AND ACCURATELYFilled with step-by- step procedures for performing hundreds of calculations, this practical guide.
The use of solar and renewable energy is ex'Source: Others, as represented by heavily loaded fluorescent, mercury vapor and metal halide, decay rapidly during their early years and then coast along at a relatively lower lumen output throughout most of their useful life. The analysis estimates a major increase in the use of electricity by the building sector, increasing from In these fixtures, a watt reflector bulb will provide better lighting and use less energy when substituted for a watt standard incandescent bulb. Lamp Efficacy Does Not Include Ballast Losses Incandescent Replacement The most efficacious lamps that can be used in incandescent sockets are the compact fluorescent lamps.
Power resources--Handbooks, manuals, etc. Power Mechanics -Handbooks, manuals, etc. Mehta, D. Paul, All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Published by The Fairmont Press, Inc. While every effort is made to provide dependable information, the publisher, authors, and editors cannot be held responsible for any errors or omissions.
Standards and Legislation Energy Economic Analysis Energy Auditing and Accounting Electrical System Optimization Waste Heat Recovery Utility System Optimization W A C Equipment Theory and Practice Control Systems Thermal Storage Passive Solar Energy Systems Energy Management Financing Energy Projects It has been around for almost 20 years and six editions.
It is still a leading book in thefield of energy engineering. When the first edition of the Handbook of Energy Engineering was published in October of , the field of energy engineeringwas relatively new. The Handbook of Energy Engineering has been vital in defining the role of the energy engineer and illustrating the integrated approach necessary for good project implementation.
Now in its sixth edition, the Handbook of Energy Engineering is a valuable resource for any professional practicing energy engineering and should be part of every reference library. The field of energy engineering is poised for tremendous growth as a result of the recently passed Energy Independence and Security Act of and also the growing concern for reducing greenhouse gases. The sixth edition of the Handbook of Energy Engineering will continue to be an indispensable reference to both energy engineers entering the field and seasoned professionals.
Wayne C. Turner Energy Management Consultant Editor-In-Chief, Energy Engineering vii Codes, Standards And Legislation This chapter presents a historical perspective on key codes, standards, and regulations, which have impacted energy policy and are still playing a major role in shaping energy usage. The context of past standards and legislation must be understood in order to properly implement the proper systems and to be able to impact future codes.
The Energy Policy Act for example has created an environment for retail competition. Electric utilities will drastically change the way they operate in order to provide power and lowest cost. This in turn will drastically reduce utility sponsored incentive and rebate programs, which have influenced energy conservation adoption. The chapter attempts to cover a majority of the material that currently impacts the energy related industries, with relationship to their respective initial writing.
The main difference between standards, codes and regulations is an increasing level of enforceability of the various design parameters.
A group of interested parties vendors, trade organizations, engineers, designers, citizens, etc. The standard acts as a suggestion to those parties involved, but is not enforceable until it is codified by a governing body local or state agency , which makes the standard a code.
Not meeting this code may prevent continuance of a building permit, or the ultimate stoppage of work. Once the federal government makes the code part of the federal code, it becomes a regulation. Often this progression involves equipment development and commercialization prior to codification in order to assure that the standards are attainable. Key provisions of the law are summarized below.
The law sets a target of 35 miles per gallon for the combined fleet of cars and light trucks by The law establishes a loan guarantee program for advanced battery development, grant program for plug-in hybrid vehicles, incentives for purchasing heavy-duty hybrid vehicles for fleets and credits for various electric vehicles. RFS requires 9 billion gallons of renewable fuels in , increasing to 36 billion gallons in Title I11 Energy Savings Through Improved Standards for Appliances and Lighting The law establishes new efficiency standards for motors, external power supplies, residential clothes washers, dishwashers, dehumidifiers, refrigerators, refrigerator freezers and residential boilers.
The law contains a set of national standards for light bulbs. Requires the federal government to substitute energy efficient lighting for incandescent bulbs.
Codes, Standards 1. A national goal is set to achieve zero-net energy use for new commercial buildings built after A further goal is to retrofit all pre-construction buildings to zero-net energy by Requires federal facilities to conduct a comprehensive energy and water evaluation for each facility at least once every four years.
Requires that each federal agency ensure that major replacements of installed equipment such as heating and cooling systems or renovation or expansion of existing space employ the most energy efficient designs, systems, equipment and controls that are life cycle cost effective. For the purposes of calculating life cycle cost calculations, the time period will increase from 25 years in the prior law to 40 years. Directs the Department of Energy to conduct research to develop and demonstrate new process technologies and operating practices to significantly improve the energy efficiency of equipment and processes used by energy-intensive industries.
Directs the Environmental Protection Agency to establish a recoverable waste energy inventory program. The program must include an ongoing survey of all major industry and large commercial combustion services in the United States.
Includes new incentives to promote new industrial energy efficiency through the conversion of waste heat into electricity. Creates a grant program for Healthy High Performance Schools that aims to encourage states, local governments and school systems to build green schools. Creates a program of grants and loans to support energy efficiency 4 Handbook of Energy Engineering and energy sustainability projects at public institutions. Title V Energy Savings in Government and Public Institutions Promotes energy savings performance contracting in the federal government and provides flexible financing and training of federal contract officers.
Promotes the purchase of energy efficient products and procurement of alternative fuels with lower carbon emissions for the federal government. Reauthorizes state energy grants for renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies through Establishes an energy and environmental block grant program to be used for seed money for innovative local best practices.
Title VI Alternative Research and Development Authorizes research and development to expand the use of geothermal energy. Improves the cost and effectiveness of thermal energy storage technologies that could improve the operation of concentrating solar power electric generation plants.
Promotes research and development of technologies that produce electricity from waves, tides, currents and ocean thermal differences.
Authorizes a development program on energy storage systems for electric drive vehicles, stationary applications, and electricity transmission and distribution. Title VII Carbon Capture and Sequestration Provides grants to demonstrate technologies to capture carbon dioxide from industrial sources.
Authorizes a nationwide assessment of geological formations capable of sequestering carbon dioxide underground.
Prohibits crude oil and petroleum product wholesalers from using any technique to manipulate the market or provide false information.
Provides training opportunities for individuals in the energy field who need to update their skills. Title XI Energy Transportation and Infrastructure Establishes an office of climate change and environment to coordinate and implement strategies to reduce transportation related energy use.
Title XI1 Small Business Energy Programs Loans, grants and debentures are established to help small businesses develop, invest in, and purchase energy efficient equipment and technologies. Bush on August 8, and became effective January 1, The major thrust of EPAct is energy production.
However, there are many important sections of EPAct that do help promote energy efficiency and energy conservation. There are also some significant impacts on federal energy management. Highlights are described below: Forty-four percent of this budget was used for non mobile buildings and facilities.
Electric metering is required in all federal building by the year Energy efficient specifications are required in procurement bids and evaluations.
Agencies must identify those that meet or exceed the standard. Renewable electricity consumption by the federal government cannot be less than: Double credits are earned for renewables produced on the site or on federal lands and used at a federal facility or renewables produced on Native American lands. The goal for photovoltaic energy is to have 20, solar energy systems installed in federal buildings by the year Tax Provisions Tax credits will be issued for residential solar photovoltaic and hot water heating systems.
Tax deductions will be offered for highly efficient commercial buildings and highly efficient new homes. There will also be tax credits for improvements made to existing homes, including high efficiency W A C systems, and residential fuel cell systems.
Tax credits are also available for fuel cells and microturbines used in businesses. Sometimes policy makers do not see the extensive impact of their legislation. This comprehensive legislation is far reaching and impacts energy conservation, power generation, and alternative fuel vehicles as well as energy production.
The federal as well as private sectors are impacted by this comprehensive energy act. Energy Efficiency Provisions Buildings Requires states to establish minimum commercial building energy codes and to consider minimum residential codes based on current voluntary codes. Utilities Requires states to consider new regulatory standards that would: Renewable Energy Establishes a program for providing federal support on a competitive basis for renewable energy technologies.
Expands program to promote export of these renewable energy technologies to emerging markets in developing countries. Alternative Fue 1s Gives Department of Energy authority to require a private and municipal alternative fuel fleet program starting in Provides a federal alternative fuel fleet program with phased-in acquisition schedule; also provides state fleet program for large fleets in large cities. Electric Vehicles Establishes comprehensive program for the research and development, infrastructure promotion, and vehicle demonstration for electric motor vehicle.
Electricity Removes obstacles to wholesale power competition in the Public Utilities Holding Company Act by allowing both utilities and nonutilities to form exempt wholesale generators without triggering the PUHCA restrictions. Global Climate Change Directs the Energy Information Administration to establish a baseline inventory of greenhouse gas emissions and establishes a program for the voluntary reporting of those emissions.
Directs the Department of Energy to prepare a report analyzing the strategies for mitigating global climate change and to develop a least-cost energy strategy for reducing the generation of greenhouse gases. State and local governments adopt and enforce energy codes for their jurisdictions. Energy standards describe how buildings should be constructed to save energy cost effectively. They are not mandatory, but serve as national recommendations, with some variation for regional climate.
State and local governments frequently use energy standards as the technical basis for developing their energy codes. Some energy standards are written in a mandatory, enforceable language, making it easy for jurisdictions to incorporate the provisions of the energy standards directly into their laws or regulations.
Some states have quite comprehensive building codes for example: California Title Each technical section contains general requirements and mandatory provisions. For residential buildings, a state has the option of revising its residential code to meet or exceed the residential portion of ASHRAE For commercial buildings, a state is required to update its commercial code to meet or exceed the provision of ASHRAE Both standards are continually maintained by separate Standing Standards Projects Committees.
Committee membership varies from 10 to 60 voting members. Committee membership includes representatives from many groups to ensure balance among all interest categories. After the committee proposes revisions to the standard, it undergoes public review and comment. This entire process can take anywhere from two to ten years to complete. The energy cost budget method permits tradeoffs between building systems lighting and fenestration, for example if the annual energy cost estimated for the proposed design does not exceed the annual energy cost of a base design that fulfills the prescriptive requirements.
Using the energy cost budget method approach requires simulation software that can analyze energy consumption in buildings and model the energy features in the proposed design. The nations that signed the treaty come together to make decisions at meetings called Conferences of the Parties. The 38 parties are grouped into two groups, developed industrialized nations and developing countries. The Kyoto Protocol, an international agreement reached in Kyoto in by the third Conference of the Parties COP-3 , aims to lower emissions from two groups of three green house gases: Recent research has shown that indoor air is often less clean than outdoor air and federal legislation has been proposed to establish programs to deal with this issue on a national level.
This, like the asbestos issue, will have an impact on building design and operations. Americans today spend long hours inside buildings, and building operators, managers, and designers must be aware of potential IAQ problems and how they can be avoided.
IAQ problems, sometimes termed "sick building syndrome," have become an acknowledged health and comfort problem. Buildings are characterized as sick when occupants complain of acute symptoms such as headache, eye, nose, and throat irritations, dizziness, nausea, sensitivity odors, and difficulty in concentrating. The complaints may become more clinically defined so that an occupant may develop an actual building-related illness that is believed to be related to IAQ problems.
The most effective means to deal with an IAQ problem is to remove or minimize the pollutant source, when feasible. If not, dilution and filtration may be effective. The purpose of ASHRAE Standard 62 is to specify minimum ventilation rates and indoor air quality that will be acceptable to human occupants and are intended to minimize the potential for health effects. ASHRAE Standard 55 for thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy covers several environmental parameters including: This applies to healthy people in normal indoor environments for winter and summer conditions.
Adjustment factors are described for various activity levels and clothing levels. The I P W P offers standards for measurement and verification of energy and water efficiency projects. The I P W P volumes is used to first, develop a measurement and verification strategy and plan for quantifying energy and water savings in retrofits and new construction. Second, monitor indoor environmental quality and third, quantify emissions reduction.
Certain provisions of PURPA also apply to the exchange of electric power between utilities and cogenerators. Specifically, PURPA Requires utilities to purchase the power made available by cogenerations at reasonable buy-back rates. To achieve Qualifying Status, a cogenerator must generate electricity and useful thermal energy from a single fuel source.
Finally, the plant must meet the minimum annual operating efficiency standard established by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FERC when using oil or natural gas as the principal fuel source. The standard is that the useful electric power output plus one half of the useful thermal output of the facility must be no less than The major objective of this regulation was to create a deregulated national market for natural gas.
It provides for incremental pricing of higher cost natural gas to fluctuate with the cost of fuel oil. Cogenerators classified as Qualifying Facilities under PURPA are exempt from the incremental pricing schedule established for industrial customers. Energy Economic Analysis To justify the energy investment cost, a knowledge of life-cycle costing is required.
The life-cycle cost analysis evaluates the total owning and operating cost. This approach is also used to evaluate competitive projects. In other words, the life-cycle cost analysis considers the cost over the life of the system rather than just the first cost.
This is why a time value must be placed on all cash flows into and out of the company. The cash flow model can also be used to find the present value of a future sum E Cash flow models can be developed for a variety of other types of cash now as illustrated in Figure To develop the cash flow model for the "Uniform Series Compound Amount" factor, the following cash flow diagram is drawn.
The A dollars deposited at the end of the nth period earn no interest and, therefore, contribute A dollars to the fund. These years of earned interest in the contributions will continue to increase in this manner, and the A deposited at the end of the first period will have earned interest for n- l periods.
They can be determined from computer programs, and interest tables included in the Appendix. Each factor is defined when the number of periods n and interest rate i are specified. In the case of the gradient present worth factor the escalation rate must also be stated.
The three most commonly used methods in life-cycle costing are the annual cost, present worth and rate-of-return analysis. In the present worth method a minimum rate of return i is stipulated. All future expenditures are converted to present values using the interest factors. The alternative with lowest effective first cost is the most desirable. A similar procedure is implemented in the annual cost method. The difference is that the first cost is converted to an annual expenditure.
The alternative with lowest effective annual cost is the most desirable. In the rate-of-return method, a trial-and-error procedure is usually required. Interpolation from the interest tables can determine what rate of return i will give an interest factor which will make the overall cash flow balance. The rate-of-return analysis gives a good indication of the overall ranking of independent alternates. P F is the future worth occursat the end. Interest Factors 20 Handbook of Energy Engineering The effect of escalation in fuel costs can influence greatly the final decision.
When an annual cost grows at a steady rate it may be treated as a gradient and the gradient present worth factor can be used. Special appreciation is given to Rudolph R. Vaneck and Dr. Robert Brown for use of their specially designed interest and escalation tables used in this text.
When life-cycle costing is used to compare several alternatives, the differences between costs are important. For example, if one alternate forces additional maintenance or an operating expense to occur, then these factors as well as energy costs need to be included. Remember, what was previously spent for the item to be replaced is irrelevant. The only factor to be considered is whether the new cost can be justified based on projected savings over its useful life.
The simple payback is defined as initial investment divided by annual savings after taxes. The simple payback method does not take into account the effect of interest or escalation rate. Since the payback period is relatively simple to calculate, and due to the fact managers wish to recover their investment as rapidly as possible, the payback method is frequently used.
It should be used in conjunction with other decision-making tools. When used by itself as the principal criterion, it may result in choosing less profitable investments which yield high initial returns for short periods as compared with more profitable investments which provide profits over longer periods of time. Example Problem An electrical energy audit indicates electrical motor consumption is 4 x lo6 kWh per year.
Assuming an 8q: Solve the problem using the present worth, annual cost, and rate-of-return methods. Thus we see that taking into account a modest escalation rate can dramatically affect the justification of the project. In other words, for tax purposes the expenditure for an asset such as a pump or motor cannot be fully expensed in its first year. The original investment must be charged off for tax purposes over the useful life of the asset.
A company wishes to expense an item as quickly as possible. The Internal Revenue Service allows several methods for determining the annual depreciation rate.
Straight-line Depreciation: Sum-of-Years Digits: Another method is referred to as the sum-ofyears digits. In this method the depreciation rate is determined by finding the sum of digits using the following formula: The declining-balance method allows for larger depreciation charges in the early years, which is sometimes referred to as fast write-off. The rate is calculated by taking a constant percentage of the declining undepreciated balance.
The most common method used to calculate the declining balance is to predetermine the depreciation rate. In this method the salvage value or undepreciated book value is established once the depreciation rate is pre-established.
To calculate the undepreciated book value, Formula is used: Salvage value is 0. Gas and combustion turbine equipment used to produce electricity for sale is depreciated over a year period.
Equipment used in the steam power production of electricity for sale including combustion turbines operated in combined cycle with steam units , as well as assets used to produce steam for sale, are normally depreciated over a year period. However, most electric and steam generation equipment owned by a taxpayer and producing electric or thermal energy for use by the taxpayer in its industrial process and plant activity, and not ordinarily for sale to others, is depreciated over a yearperiod.
Electrical and steam transmission and distribution equipment will be depreciated over a year period at the same percent declining balance rate.
Energy Efficiency Equipment and Real Property Depreciation Energy conservation equipment, still classified as real property, is depreciated on a straight line basis over a recovery period. Other real property assets are depreciated over the above period, depending on their residential or nonresidential character.
Handbook of Energy Engineering 26 After-tax Analysis Tax-deductible expenses such as maintenance, energy, operating costs, insurance and property taxes reduce the income subject to taxes. For the after-tax life-cycle cost analysis and payback analysis, the actual incurred annual savings is given as follows: On the other hand, the depreciation allowance reduces taxes directly. To compute a rate of return which accounts for taxes, depreciation, escalation and tax credits, a cash-flow analysis is usually required.
This method analyzes all transactions including first and operating costs. To determine the after-tax rate of return, a trial and error or computer analysis is required. The present worth factors tables in the Appendix, can be used for this analysis. All money is converted to the present assuming an interest rate.
The summation of all present dollars should equal zero when the correct interest rate is selected, as illustrated in Figure This analysis can be made assuming a fuel escalation rate by using the gradient present worth interest of the present worth factor. Example Problem Comment on the after-tax rate of return for the installation of a heatrecovery system given the following: Correct iwhen ZP 0 I Figure The problem facing the energy engineer is how to forecast what the future of energy costs will be.
All too often no fuel inflation is considered because of the difficulty of projecting the future. In making projections the following guidelines may be helpful: Is there a rate increase that can be forecast based on new nuclear generating capacity?
In locations such as Georgia, California, and Arizona electric rates will rise at a faster rate due to commissioning of new nuclear plants and rate increases approved by the Public Service Commission of that state.
What has been the historical rate increase for the facility? Even with fluctuations there are likely to be trends to follow. What events on a national or international level would impact on your costs? New state taxes, new production quotas by OPEC and other factors will affect your fuel prices. What do the experts say? Energy economists, forecasting services, and your local utility projections all should be taken into account.
Energy Economic Analysis 29 The rate of return on investment becomes more attractive when lifecycle costs are taken into account. Tables A-9 through A can be used to show the impact of fuel inflation on the decision-making process. The effect of escalation is not considered. Calculate for 5-, lo-, , year life. The second component is a uniform series of 0.
The sum of these two present worth factors must equal P. In the case of no escalation, the formula is 0. The results are indicated below. This figure can be used as a quick way to determine after-tax economics of energy utilization expenditures. Effects of Escalation on Investment Requirements Note: An energy audit serves the purpose of identifying where a building or plant facility uses energy and identifies energy conservation opportunities.
There is a direct relationship to the cost of the audit amount of data collected and analyzed and the number of energy conservation opportunities to be found. Thus, a first distinction is the cost of the audit which determines the type of audit to be performed. The second distinction is the type of facility. For example, a building audit may emphasize the building envelope, lighting, heating, and ventilation requirements. On the other hand, an audit of an industrial plant emphasizes the process requirements.
Most energy audits fall into three categories or types, namely, walkthrough, mini-audit, or maxi-audit. Walk-through-This type of audit is the least costly and identifies preliminary energy savings.
A visual inspection of the facility is made to determine maintenance and operation energy saving opportunities plus collection of information to determine the need for a more detailed analysis. Mini-audit-This type of audit requires tests and measurements to quantify energy uses and losses and determine the economics for changes.
Muxi-uudi-This type of audit goes one step further than the mini-audit. It contains an evaluation of how much energy is used for each function such as lighting, process, etc. It also requires a model analysis, such as a computer simulation, to determine energy use patterns and predictions on a year-round basis, taking into account such variables as weather data.
Data Acquisition This phase requires the accumulation of utility bills, establishing a baseline to provide historical documentation and a survey of the facility. All energy flows should be accounted for; thus all "energy in" should equal "energy out. All energy costs should be determined for each fuel type. The energy survey is essential.
Instrumentation commonly used in conducting a survey is discussed at the conclusion of the chapter. The life-cyclecosting techniques presented in Chapter 2 will be used to determine which alternative should be given priority. A very important phase of the overall program is to continuously monitor the facility even after the ECOs have been implemented.
Documentation of the cost avoidance or savings is essential to the audit. Remember, in order to have a continuous ongoing program, individuals must be made accountable for energy use. As part of the audit, recommendations should be made as to where to add "root" or submetering. For an industrial facility the energy audit approach includes process consideration. Figures through illustrate how energy is used for a typical industrial plant.
It is important to account for total consumption, cost, and how energy is used for each commodity such as steam, water, air and natural gas. This procedure is required to develop the appropriate energy conservation strategy. The top portion of Figure illustrates how much energy is used by fuel type and its relative percentage. The pie chart below shows how much is spent for each fuel type. Using a pie-chart presentation or nodal flow diagram can be very helpful in visualizing how energy is being used.
Energy Use and Cost Profile Figure , on the other hand, shows how much of the energy is used for each function such as lighting, process, and building heating and ventilation. Pie charts similar to the right-hand side of the figure should be made for each category such as air, steam, electricity, water and natural gas. Figure illustrates an alternate representation for the steam distribution profile. Several audits are required to construct the energy use profiles, such as: Envelope Audit-This audit surveys the building envelope for losses or gains due to leaks, building construction, doors, glass, lack of insulation, etc.
Functional Audit-This audit determines the amount of energy required for a particular function and identifies energy conservation opportunities. Functional audits include: Steam Distribution Nodal Diagram Heating, ventilation and air conditioning Building Lighting Domestic hot water Air distribution Process Audit-This audit determines the amount of energy required for each process function and identifies energy conservation opportunities.
Process functional audits include: Handbook of Energy Engineering 38 Utility Audit-This audit analyzes the monthly, daily or yearly energy usage for each utility. Table Percent The residential sector consumed See Table The analysis estimates a major increase in the use of electricity by the building sector, increasing from These figures represent the source primary energy used to generate electricity. During this period, natural gas use is forecast to increase slightly from 7. The use of solar and renewable energy is ex'Source: Energy Auditing and Accounting 43 pected to more than double from 1.
The various types of instrumentation commonly used in the survey are discussed in this section. Infrared Equipment Some companies may have the wrong impression that infrared equipment can meet most of their instrumentation needs.
The primary use of infrared equipment in an energy utilization program is to detect building or equipment losses. Thus it is just one of the many options available. Several energy managers find infrared in use in their plant prior to the energy utilization program.
Infrared equipment, in many instances, was purchased by the electrical department and used to detect electrical hot spots. Infrared energy is an invisible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. It exists naturally and can be measured by remote heat-sensing equipment. Within the last four years lightweight portable infrared systems became available to help determine energy losses.
Differences in the infrared emissions from the surface of objects cause color variations to appear on the scanner. The hotter the object, the more infrared radiated. With the aid of an isotherm circuit, the intensity of these radiation levels can be accurately measured and quantified.
In essence the infrared scanning device is a diagnostic tool which can be used to determine building heat losses. An overview energy scan of the plant can be made through an aerial survey using infrared equipment.
Aerial scans can determine underground stream pipe leaks, hot gas discharges, leaks, etc. Since IR detection and measurement equipment have gained increased importance in the energy audit process, a summary of the fundamentals is reviewed in this section.
The visible portion of the spectrum runs from. The infrared or thermal radiation begins at this point and extends to Handbook of Energy Engineering 44 approximately pm. Objects such as people, plants, or buildings will emit radiation with wavelengths around 10 p.
See Figure Electromagnetic Spectrum Infrared instruments are required to detect and measure the thermal radiation. To calibrate the instrument, a special "black body" radiator is used. A black body radiator absorbs all the radiation that impinges on it and has an absorbing efficiency or emissivity of 1. The accuracy of temperature measurements by infrared instruments depends on the three processes which are responsible for an object acting like a black body.
These processes-absorbed, reflected, and transmitted radiation-are responsible for the total radiation reaching an infrared scanner. The real temperature of the object is dependent only upon its emitted radiation. Corrections to apparent temperatures are made by knowing the emissivity of an object at a specified temperature.
The heart of the infrared instrument is the infrared detector. The detector absorbs infrared energy and converts it into electrical voltage or current. The two principal types of detectors are the thermal and photo type. The thermal detector generally requires a given period of time to develop an image on photographic film. The photo detectors are more sensitive and have a higher response time. Television-like displays on a cathode ray tube permit studies of dynamic thermal events on moving objects in real time.
There are various ways of displaying signals produced by infrared detectors. One way is by use of an isotherm contour. The lightest areas of the picture represent the warmest areas of the subject, and the darkest areas represent the coolest portions. These instruments can show thermal variations of less than 0. Energy Auditing and Accounting 45 The isotherm can be calibrated by means of a black body radiator so that a specific temperature is known.
The scanner can then be moved and the temperatures of the various parts of the subject can be made. These instruments are described below. Ammeter and Voltmeter To measure electrical currents, ammeters are used. For most audits, alternating currents are measured.
Ammeters used in audits are portable and are designed to be easily attached and removed. There are many brands and styles of snap-on ammeters commonly available that can read up to amperes continuously. This range can be extended to amperes continuously for some models with an accessory step-down current transformer. The snap-on ammeters can be either indicating or recording with a printout. After attachment, the recording ammeter can keep recording current variations for as long as a full month on one roll of recording paper.
This allows the study of current variations in a conductor for extended periods without constant operator attention. The ammeter supplies a direct measurement of electrical current, which is one of the parameters needed to calculate electrical energy. The second parameter required to calculate energy is voltage, and it is measured by a voltmeter. Several types of electrical meters can read the voltage or current.
A voltmeter measures the difference in electrical potential between two points in an electrical circuit. In series with the probes are the galvanometer and a fixed resistance which determine the voltage scale.
The current through this fixed resistance circuit is then proportional to the voltage, and the galvanometer deflects in proportion to the voltage. The voltage drops measured in many instances are fairly constant and need only be performed once. If there are appreciable fluctuations, additional readings or the use of a recording voltmeter may be indicated. Wattmeter and Power Factor Meter The portable wattmeter can be used to indicate by direct reading electrical energy in watts.
It can also be calculated by measuring voltage, current and the angle between them power factor angle. The basic wattmeter consists of three voltage probes and a snap-on current coil which feeds the wattmeter movement. The typical operating limits are kilowatts, volts, and amperes.
It can be used on both one- and three-phase circuits. The portable power factor meter is primarily a three-phase instrument. One of its three voltage probes is attached to each conductor phase and a snap-on jaw is placed about one of the phases. By disconnecting the wattmeter circuitry, it will directly read the power factor of the circuit to which it is attached.
It can measure power factor over a range of 1. This range covers the large bulk of the applications found in light industry and commerce. The power factor is a basic parameter whose value must be known to calculate electric energy usage.
Diagnostically, it is a useful instrument to determine the sources of poor power factor in a facility. Portable digital kWh and kW demand units are now available. Digital read-outs of energy usage in both kWh and kW demand or in dollars and cents, including instantaneous usage, accumulated usage, projected usage for a particular billing period, alarms when over-target levels are desired for usage, and control-outputs for load shedding and cycling are possible.
Continuous displays or intermittent alternating displays are available at the touch of a button for any information needed such as the cost of operating a production machine for one shift, one hour or one week. Footcandle Meter Footcandle meters measure illumination in units of footcandles through a light-sensitivebarrier layer of cells contained within them.
They are usually pocket-size and portable and are meant to be used as field instruments to survey levels of illumination. These meters differ from conventional photographic lightmeters in that they are color and cosine corrected. Several types of temperature devices are described in this section. Thermometer There are many types of thermometers that can be used in an energy audit. The choice of what to use is usually dictated by cost, durability, and application.
Three separate probes are usually provided to measure liquid, air or surface temperatures. Surface Pyrometer Surface pyrometers are instruments which measure the temperature of surfaces. They are somewhat more complex than other temperature instruments because their probe must make intimate contact with the surface being measured.
Surface pyrometers are of immense help in assessing heat losses through walls and also for testing steam traps. They may be divided into two classes: The low-temperature unit is usually part of the multipurpose thermometer kit. The high-temperature unit is more specialized but needed for evaluating fired units and general steam service. There are also noncontact surface pyrometers which measure infrared radiation from surfaces in terms of temperature. These are suitable for general work and also for measuring surfaces which are visually but not physically accessible.
A more specialized instrument is the optical pyrometer. Psychrometer A psychrometer is an instrument which measures relative humidity based on the relation of the dry-bulb temperature and the wetbulb tem- 48 Handbook of Energy Engineering perature.
Relative humidity is of prime importance in W A C and drying operations. Recording psychrometers are also available. Portable Electronic Thermometer The portable electronic thermometer is an adaptable temperature measurement tool.
The battery-powered basic instrument, when housed in a carrying case, is suitable for laboratory or industrial use.
A pocket-size digital, battery-operated thermometer is especially convenient for spot checks or where a number of rapid readings of process temperatures need to be taken.
Thermocouple Probe No matter what sort of indicating instrument is employed, the thermocouple used should be carefully selected to match the application and properly positioned if a representative temperature is to be measured.
The same care is needed for all sensing devices-thermocouple, bimetals, resistance elements, fluid expansion, and vapor pressure bulbs.
Suction Pyrometer Errors arise if a normal sheathed thermocouple is used to measure gas temperatures, especially high ones. The suction pyrometer overcomes these by shielding the thermocouple from wall radiation and drawing gases over it at high velocity to ensure good convective heat transfer. The thermocouple thus produces a reading which approaches the true temperature at the sampling point rather than a temperature between that of the walls and the gases. By obtaining a good air-fuel ratio, substantial energy will be saved.
Combustion Tester Combustion testing consists of determining the concentrationsof the products of combustion in a stack gas. The products of combustion usually considered are carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide.
Oxygen is tested to assure proper excess air levels. Energy Auditing and Accounting 49 The definitive test for these constituents is an Orsat apparatus. This test consists of taking a measured volume of stack gas and measuring successive volumes after intimate contact with selective absorbing solutions.
The reduction in volume after each absorption is the measure of each constituent. The Orsat has a number of disadvantages. The main ones are that it requires considerable time to set up and use and that its operator must have a good degree of dexterity and be in constant practice. Instead of an Orsat, there are portable and easy to use absorbing instruments which can easily determine the concentrations of the constituents of interest on an individual basis.
Setup and operating times are minimal and just about anyone can learn to use them.
The CO, or 0, content, along with knowledge of flue gas temperature and fuel type, allows the flue gas loss to be determined off standard charts.
Boiler Test Kit The boiler test kit contains the following: The purpose of the components of the kit is to help evaluate fireside boiler operation. Good combustion usually means high carbon dioxide CO, , low oxygen O, , and little or no trace of carbon monoxide CO.
Gas Analyzers The gas analyzers are usually of the Fyrite type. The Fyrite type differs from the Orsat apparatus in that it is more limited in application and less accurate.
The chief advantages of the Fyrite are that it is simple and easy to use and is inexpensive. This device is used many times in an energy audit. Three readings using the Fyrite analyzer should be made and the results averaged. Draft Gauge The draft gauge is used to measure pressure. It can be the pocket type or the inclined manometer type.
Handbook of Energy Engineering 50 Smoke Tester To measure combustion completeness the smoke detector is used. Smoke is unburned carbon, which wastes fuel, causes air pollution, and fouls heat-exchanger surfaces. To use the instrument, a measured volume of flue gas is drawn through filter paper with the probe. The smoke spot is compared visually with a standard scale and a measure of smoke density is determined. Combustion Analyzer The combustion electronic analyzer permits fast, close adjustments.
The unit contains digital displays. A standard sampler assembly with probe allows for stack measurements through a single stack or breaching hole. Smoke pellets-limited use but very low cost. Considered to be useful if engineering staff has experience in handling. Anemometer deflecting vane -good indication of air movement with acceptable order of accuracy. Anemometer revolvingvane -good indicator of air movement with acceptable accuracy.
However, easily subject to damage. Pitot tube-a standard air measurement device with good levels of accuracy. Considered essential. Must be used with a monometer.
Impact tube-usually packaged air flow meter kits, complete with various jets for testing ducts, grills, open areas, etc. These units are convenient to use and of sufficient accuracy.
Energy Auditing and Accounting 52 Heated thermocouple-these units are sensitive and accurate but costly. Hot wire anemometer-not recommended. Too costly and too complex. Temperature Measurement The temperature devices most commonly used are as follows: Glass thermometers-considered to be the most useful to temperature measuring instruments-accurate and convenient but fragile.
Engineers should have a selection of various ranges. Accuracy is good and they are reliable and convenient to use. Thermocouples-similar to resistance thermocouple but do not require battery power source.
Chrome-Alum or iron types are the most useful and have satisfactory accuracy and repeatability. Bimetallic thermometers-considered unsuitable. Pressure bulb thermometers-more suitable for permanent installation. Optical pyrometers-only suitable for furnace settings and therefore limited in use. Thermogaphs-use for recording room or space temperature; gives a chart indicating variations over a or hour period. Reasonably accurate. Spring-wound drive. Pressure Measurement Absolute and Differential Common devices used for measuring pressure in W A C applications accuracy, range, application, and limitations are discussed in relation to HVAC work are as follows: Absolute pressure manometer-not really suited to HVAC test work.
Diaphragm-not really suited to HVAC test work. Micromanometer-not usually portable, but suitable for fixed measurement of pressure differentials across filter, coils, etc. Draft gauges-can be portable and used for either direct pressure or pressure differential. Manometers-can be portable. Used for direct pressure reading and with Pitot tubes for air flows. Very useful. Swing vane gauges-can be portable. Usually used for air flow.
Bourdon tube gauges-very useful for measuring all forms of system fluid pressures from 5 psi up. Special types for refrigeration plants. Humidity Measurement The data given below indicate the type of instruments available for humidity measurement. The following indicates equipment suitable for W A C applications: Psychrometers-basically these are wet and dry bulb thermometers.
They can be fixed on a portable stand or mounted in a frame with a handle for revolving in air. Dewpoint hygrometers-not considered suitable for W A C test work. Dimensional change-device usually consists of a "hair," which changes in length proportionally with humidity changes.
Not usually portable, fragile, and only suitable for limited temperature and humidity ranges. Very convenient to use. Electrolytic-as above, but for very low temperature ranges. Therefore unsuitable for HVAC test work. Gravimeter-no t suitable. It is important to quantify usage, fuel costs as a function of production. Figure illustrates a typical steam and utility cost report. This report enables the plant Energy Auditing and Accounting 53 manager to evaluate the total Btus of fuel consumed, the total fuel cost, and the total steam generation cost as a function of production.
This report is issued monthly. Since each plant has the same report, plant to plant comparisons are made and the effectiveness of the energy use is measured.
Oil ' 7. Gas 8. Feedwater Temp. Equivalent Steam No. Boiler Efficiency Total Fuel Cost No. Operating Supplies water, chemicals, etc. Maintenance Charges Other Miscellaneous Charges Total Operating Cost No.
Total Steam Generation Cost No. Using energy more efficiently reduces the product cost, thus increasing profits. In order to account for the process energy content, all energy that enters and leaves a plant during a given period must be measured. Figure illustrates energy content of a process report. The report applies to any manufacturing operation, whether it is a pulp mill, steel mill, or assembly line. This report enables one to quickly identify energy inefficient operations.
Attention can then be focused on which equipment should be replaced and what maintenance programs should be initiated. This report also focuses attention on the choice of raw materials. By using Btus per unit of production, measurable goals can be set.
This report will also identify opportunities where energy usage can be reduced. The energy content of raw materials can be estimated by using the heating values indicated in Table Example Problem Comment on energy content by modifying process No. Answer Process No. Total Btu's Per Unit Usage a. The first step is to analyze the billing structure. It may be possible to negotiate a better tariff rate with the local utility or modify the facility operation to qualify for a lower rate.
In addition, specified charges or discounts for power factor, time of day or demand will determine if certain electrical efficiency measures are economicallyjustified. This chapter reviews the basic parameters required to make sound energy engineering decisions. Billing Demand-The maximum kilowatt requirement over a , , or minute interval.
Load Factor-The ratio of the average load over a designated period to the peak demand load occurring in that period. Power Factor-The ratio of resistive power to apparent power. Energy conversion engineering Steam power generation Gas-turbine power generation Internal-combustion engine energy analysis Nuclear energy engineering Hydroelectric energy power plants Wind power energy design and application Solar power energy application and usage Geothermal energy engineering Ocean energy engineering Heat transfer and energy conservation Fluid transfer engineering Interior climate control energy economics Energy conservation and environmental pollution control Technology Engineering Nonfiction Publication Details Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education Imprint: McGraw-Hill Professional Edition: Hicks Author Tyler G.
He has worked in plant designing and operation in a variety of industries, taught at several engineering schools, and lectured both in the We want your feedback! Click here. Hicks ebook. Subjects Technology Engineering Nonfiction. Energy conversion engineering Steam power generation Gas-turbine power generation Internal-combustion engine energy analysis Nuclear energy engineering Hydroelectric energy power plants Wind power energy design and application Solar power energy application and usage Geothermal energy engineering Ocean energy engineering Heat transfer and energy conservation Fluid transfer engineering Interior climate control energy economics Energy conservation and environmental pollution control.
Technology Engineering Nonfiction.