The Holy Bible: German Luther Translation Holy Bible (English Standard Version) Hebrew-English Tanakh: The Jewish Bible - Holy Language Institute. of the third edition of the King James English Bible of , and (3) a complete copy of the Christopher Saur German Bible of The first of these was treated . NO GERMAN BIBLE BEFORE LUTHER? One of the most persistent inaccuracies regarding the European. Middle Ages—both among the general public and.
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Dez. About The Holy Bible: German Luther Translation. The Holy Bible: German Luther Translation. Title: mmoonneeyy.info Hundreds of versions in + different languages - the Bible that goes with you anywhere. Download the Free Bible App. Martin Luther's German Bible (expanded version). Ernst Wendland. שׁר יֵ ֵצ֣א ִמ ִ֔פּי ֽל ֹא־ ָי ֥שׁוּב ֵא ַל֖י ֵרי ָ ֑ קם ִ ֤כּי ִאם־ ָ ָשׂ ֙ה ֵכּ֣ן יִ ְֽה ֶי֤ה ְד ָב .
The same may be said of the other two German Catholic Bibles of the age of the Reformation. Gradually no less than eleven or twelve recensions came into use, some based on the edition of , others on that of He made the Bible the people's book in church, school, and house. Archbishop Berthold of Mainz, otherwise a learned and enlightened prelate, issued, Jan. His genius for poetry and music enabled him to reproduce the rhythm and melody, the parallelism and symmetry, of Hebrew poetry and prose. See Fritzsche in Herzog ii, vol. Sign in.
According to his well-known name—Chauta! I happen to walk, Mantha onse balala! All [my] fear GONE! Kunena chakudya, ha! Talk about food, ha! Chiko changa cha madalitso chiri nde-nde-nde!
Kwanu inu mwandilandiradi ndi manja awiri. They really follow me during [my] whole life down here. Charles Scribner's Sons, It was a republication of the gospel.
He made the Bible the people's book in church, school, and house. If he had done nothing else, he would be one of the greatest benefactors of the German-speaking race.
The Bible ceased to be a foreign book in a foreign tongue, and became naturalized, and hence far more clear and dear to the common people. Hereafter the Reformation depended no longer on the works of the Reformers, but on the book of God, which everybody could read for himself as his daily guide in spiritual life. This inestimable blessing of an open Bible for all, without the permission or intervention of pope and priest, marks an immense advance in church history, and can never be lost.
Earlier Versions Luther was not the first, but by far the greatest translator of the German Bible, and is as inseparably connected with it as Jerome is with the Latin Vulgate.
He threw the older translation into the shade and out of use, and has not been surpassed or even equaled by a successor. The civilization of the barbarians in the dark ages began with the introduction of Christianity, and the translation of such portions of the Scriptures as were needed in public worship. It is the earliest monument of Teutonic literature, and the basis of comparative Teutonic philology. It slavishly follows the Latin Vulgate. It may be compared to Wiclif's English Version , which was likewise made from the Vulgate, the original languages being then almost unknown in Europe.
Paul to the Laodiceans, which is a worthless compilation of a few sentences from the genuine writings of the apostle.
Most of them are in large folio, in two volumes, and illustrated by wood- cuts. The editions present one and the same version or rather two versions,--one High German, the other Low German with dialectical alterations and accommodations to the textual variations of the MSS.
The revisers are as unknown as the translators. The spread of this version, imperfect as it was, proves the hunger and thirst of the German people for the pure word of God, and prepared the way for the Reformation. It alarmed the hierarchy. Archbishop Berthold of Mainz, otherwise a learned and enlightened prelate, issued, Jan. Even Geiler of Kaisersberg, who sharply criticised the follies of the world and abuses of the Church, thought it "an evil thing to print the Bible in German.
He made judicious use of it, as he did also of old German and Latin hymns. Without such aid he could hardly have finished his New Testament in the short space of three months. It is to all intents a new work. Luther's Qualifications Luther had a rare combination of gifts for a Bible translator: A good translation must be both true and free, faithful and idiomatic, so as to read like an original work.
This is the case with Luther's version. Besides, he had already acquired such fame and authority that his version at once commanded universal attention. His knowledge of Greek and Hebrew was only moderate, but sufficient to enable him to form an independent judgment.
In the German tongue he had no rival. He created, as it were, or gave shape and form to the modern High German. He combined the official language of the government with that of the common people. He listened, as he says, to the speech of the mother at home, the children in the street, the men and women in the market, the butcher and various tradesmen in their shops, and, "looked them on the mouth," in pursuit of the most intelligible terms. His genius for poetry and music enabled him to reproduce the rhythm and melody, the parallelism and symmetry, of Hebrew poetry and prose.
His crowning qualification was his intuitive insight and spiritual sympathy with the contents of the Bible.
A good translation, he says, requires "a truly devout, faithful, diligent, Christian, learned, experienced, and practiced heart. He found for the first time a complete copy of the Latin Bible in the University Library at Erfurt, to his great delight, and made it his chief study.
He derived from it his theology and spiritual nourishment; he lectured and preached on it as professor at Wittenberg day after day. He acquired the knowledge of the original languages for the purpose of its better understanding. He liked to call himself a "Doctor of the Sacred Scriptures.
He was urged by his friends, especially by Melanchthon, as well as by his own sense of duty, to translate the whole Bible.
He began with the New Testament in November or December, , and completed it in the following March, before he left the Wartburg. He thoroughly revised it on his return to Wittenberg, with the effectual help of Melanchthon, who was a much better Greek scholar. Sturz at Erfurt was consulted about coins and measures; Spalatin furnished from the Electoral treasury names for the precious stones of the New Jerusalem Rev.
The translation was then hurried through three presses, and appeared already Sept. The Pentateuch appeared in ; the Psalter, They met once a week in his house, several hours before supper.
Each member of the company contributed to the work from his special knowledge and preparation. Melanchthon brought with him the Greek Bible, Cruciger the Hebrew and Chaldee, Bugenhagen the Vulgate, others the old commentators; Luther had always with him the Latin and the German versions besides the Hebrew.
Sometimes they scarcely mastered three lines of the Book of Job in four days, and hunted two, three, and four weeks for a single word. No record exists of the discussions of this remarkable company, but Mathesius says that "wonderfully beautiful and instructive speeches were made. He never ceased to amend his translation. Besides correcting errors, he improved the uncouth and confused orthography, fixed the inflections, purged the vocabulary of obscure and ignoble words, and made the whole more symmetrical and melodious.
He prepared five original editions, or recensions, of his whole Bible, the last in , a year before his death. Some of them are real improvements, e. The charge that he made the changes in the interest of Philippism Melanchthonianism , seems to be unfounded.
It passed through innumerable improvements and mis-improvements. The orthography and inflections were modernized, obsolete words removed, the versicular division introduced first in a Heidelberg reprint, , the spurious clause of the three witnesses inserted in 1 John 5: Elector August of Saxony tried to control the text in the interest of strict Lutheran orthodoxy, and ordered the preparation of a standard edition But it was disregarded outside of Saxony.
Gradually no less than eleven or twelve recensions came into use, some based on the edition of , others on that of The most careful recension was that of the Canstein Bible Institute, founded by a pious nobleman, Carl Hildebrand von Canstein in connection with Francke's Orphan House at Halle. It acquired the largest circulation and became the textus receptus of the German Bible. Revised versions with many improvements were prepared by Joh.
Rudolf Stier , but did not obtain public authority. At last a conservative official revision of the Luther Bible was inaugurated by the combined German church governments in , with a view and fair prospect of superseding all former editions in public use. Duke George of Saxony, Duke William of Bavaria, and Archduke Ferdinand of Austria strictly prohibited the sale in their dominions, but could not stay the current.
Hans Lufft at Wittenberg printed and sold in forty years between and about a hundred thousand copies,--an enormous number for that age,--and these were read by millions. The number of copies from reprints is beyond estimate. Cochlaeus, the champion of Romanism, paid the translation the greatest compliment when he complained that "Luther's New Testament was so much multiplied and spread by printers that even tailors and shoemakers, yea, even women and ignorant persons who had accepted this new Lutheran gospel, and could read a little German, studied it with the greatest avidity as the fountain of all truth.
Some committed it to memory, and carried it about in their bosom. In a few months such people deemed themselves so learned that they were not ashamed to dispute about faith and the gospel not only with Catholic laymen, but even with priests and monks and doctors of divinity. Such were made by Emser , Dietenberger , and Eck , and accompanied with annotations.
Panzer already knew fourteen; see his Gesch. The first four, in large folio, appeared without date and place of publication, but were probably printed: The others are located, and from the seventh on also dated, viz.: Sorg, , folio.
The Low Dutch Bibles were printed: The unknown editor speaks of previous editions and his own improvements. Stevens Nos. Kehrein I. Stevens gives the full titles with descriptions, pp. Seminary, New York.
I examined them. They are ornamented by woodcuts, beginning with a picture of God creating the world, and forming Eve from the rib of Adam in Paradise. Several of them have Jerome's preface De omnibus divinae historiae libris, Ep. Das erst capitel. Krafft illustrates the dependence of Luther on the earlier version by several examples pp. The following is from the Sermon on the Mount, Matt.
Ich des gerichts. Der aber spricht sagt, Racha, der ist des zu seinem bruder. Darum ob du auff den altar opfferst, un opfferst dein gab zu dem wirst alda eyngedenken, attar. Bis deyn gabe. Sey willfertig gehellig deim deynem widersacher, bald, widerwertigen schyer.
Un Gott auff den wassern. Es werde liecht.
Es werde dz liecht. Und es ward liecht. Un das liecht ist worden. The precise origin of the mediaeval German Bible is still unknown. On the other hand, Dr. Franz Jostes, a Roman Catholic scholar, denied the Waldensian and defended the Catholic origin of that translation, in two pamphlets: The same author promises a complete history of German Catholic Bible versions. The question has been discussed in periodicals and reviews, e.
Literaturblatt," Leipzig, and Nos. The arguments for the Waldensian origin are derived from certain additions to the Codex Teplensis, and alleged departures from the text of the Vulgate. But the additions are not anti-Catholic, and are not found in the cognate Freiberger MS.
The text of the Vulgate was in greater confusion in the middle ages than the text of the Itala at the time of Jerome, nor was there any authorized text of it before the Clementine recension of The only plausible argument which Dr. Keller brings out in his second publication pp. Dutch, French, and Italian versions also appeared among the earliest prints.
See Stevens, Nos. The Italian edition exhibited in at London is entitled: La Biblia en lingua Volgare per Nicolo di Mallermi. Rosso Vercellese, , fol. A Spanish Bible by Bonif.
Ferrer was printed at Valencia, see Reuss, Gesch. The Bible is the common property and most sacred treasure of all Christian churches. The art of printing was invented in Catholic times, and its history goes hand in hand with the history of the Bible. The Bible was the first book printed, and the Bible is the last book printed. Between and , an interval of four centuries and a quarter, the Bible shows the progress and comparative development of the art of printing in a manner that no other single book can; and Biblical bibliography proves that during the first forty years, at least, the Bible exceeded in amount of printing all other books put together; nor were its quality, style, and variety a whit behind its quantity.
It was, from beginning to end, a labor of love and enthusiasm. While publishers and printers made fortunes, Luther never received or asked a copper for this greatest work of his life.
A German translation from the original languages was a work of colossal magnitude if we consider the absence of good grammars, dictionaries, and concordances, the crude state of Greek and Hebrew scholarship, and of the German language, in the sixteenth century. Luther wrote to Amsdorf, Jan. The science of textual criticism was not yet born, and the materials for it were not yet collected from the manuscripts, ancient versions, and patristic quotations. Luther had to use the first printed editions.
He had no access to manuscripts, the most important of which were not even discovered or made available before the middle of the nineteenth century.
Biblical geography and archaeology were in their infancy, and many names and phrases could not be understood at the time. In view of these difficulties we need not be surprised at the large number of mistakes, inaccuracies, and inconsistencies in Luther's version.
They are most numerous in Job and the Prophets, who present, even to the advanced Hebrew scholars of our day, many unsolved problems of text and rendering. The English Version of had the great advantage of the labors of three generations of translators and revisers, and is therefore more accurate, and yet equally idiomatic.
He derived the text from a few mediaeval MSS. Stephen, in his "royal edition" of the basis of the English Textus Receptus , and by the Elzevirs in their editions of and the basis of the Continental Textus Receptus , and which maintained the supremacy till Lachmann inaugurated the adoption of an older textual basis Luther did not slavishly follow the Greek of Erasmus, and in many places conformed to the Latin Vulgate, which is based on an older text.
He also omitted, even in his last edition, the famous interpolation of the heavenly witnesses in 1 John 5: Saxons and Bavarians, Hanoverians and Swabians, could scarcely understand each other.
Nobody seems to care sufficiently for it; and every preacher thinks he has a right to change it at pleasure, and to invent new terms. Luther brought harmony out of this confusion, and made the modern High German the common book language. He chose as the basis the Saxon dialect, which was used at the Saxon court and in diplomatic intercourse between the emperor and the estates, but was bureaucratic, stiff, heavy, involved, dragging, and unwieldy. He enriched it with the vocabulary of the German mystics, chroniclers, and poets.
He gave it wings, and made it intelligible to the common people of all parts of Germany. He adapted the words to the capacity of the Germans, often at the expense of accuracy. He cared more for the substance than the form. He substituted even undeutsch! Still greater liberties he allowed himself in the Apocrypha, to make them more easy and pleasant reading.
He avoided foreign terms which rushed in like a flood with the revival of learning, especially in proper names as Melanchthon for Schwarzerd, Aurifaber for Goldschmid, Oecolampadius for Hausschein, Camerarius for Kammermeister. He enriched the vocabulary with such beautiful words as holdselig, Gottseligkeit.
Erasmus Alber, a contemporary of Luther, called him the German Cicero, who not only reformed religion, but also the German language. Luther's version is an idiomatic reproduction of the Bible in the very spirit of the Bible. It brings out the whole wealth, force, and beauty of the German language. It is the first German classic, as King James's version is the first English classic. The best authority in Teutonic philology pronounces his language to be the foundation of the new High German dialect on account of its purity and influence, and the Protestant dialect on account of its freedom which conquered even Roman Catholic authors.
Emser, one of the most learned opponents of the Reformation, singled out in Luther's New Testament several hundred linguistic blunders and heretical falsifications.
He published, by order of Duke George of Saxony, a new translation for the purpose of correcting the errors of "Luther and other heretics. The most important example of dogmatic influence in Luther's version is the famous interpolation of the word alone in Rom. It is well known that Luther deemed it impossible to harmonize the two apostles in this article, and characterized the Epistle of James as an "epistle of straw," because it had no evangelical character "keine evangelische Art".
He therefore insisted on this insertion in spite of all outcry against it. His defense is very characteristic. Doctor Martin Luther will have it so, and says: Papist and donkey are one thing; sic volo, sic jubeo, sit pro ratione voluntas. For we do not want to be pupils and followers of the Papists, but their masters and judges.
Paul in dealing with his Judaizing opponents 2 Cor. Are they learned? Are they preachers? Are they theologians? Are they disputators?
Are they philosophers? Are they the writers of books? And I shall further boast: I can expound Psalms and Prophets; which they can not. I can translate; which they can not Therefore the word allein shall remain in my New Testament, and though all pope- donkeys Papstesel should get furious and foolish, they shall not turn it out.
On the other hand, the Roman Catholic translators used the same liberty of marginal annotations and pictorial illustrations in favor of the doctrines and usages of their own church. Emser's New Testament is full of anti-Lutheran glosses. Article PDF first page preview. Issue Section:. You do not currently have access to this article. Download all figures. Sign in. You could not be signed in. Sign In Forgot password? Don't have an account? Sign in via your Institution Sign in. Purchase Subscription prices and ordering Short-term Access To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above.
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