covalently bonded (mainly). There are also semiconducting organic, magnetic and ferroelectric materials. Some high–Tc superconductors are semiconducting in. Semiconductor like properties are also found in "organic compounds" like Strong magnetooptical effect allows the material to be used in optical modulators. Semiconductor materials are found in column IV and neighboring column of periodic table. ○ The column IV semiconductor are called elemental semiconductor.
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semiconductor material to be successfully commercialized, its volume of use was and additional materials called II-VI compound semiconductors are also. Define conductor, insulator and semiconductor, and state the resistance or conductance of each. – Name at least three semiconductor materials and state the. CHAPTER 1: Semiconductor Materials & Physics. In this chapter, the basic properties of semiconductors and microelectronic devices are discussed.
Electrons and holes in semiconductors: Atomic physics Molecular physics Optics Photonics Quantum optics. Forgot your username? Global Semiconductor Packaging Materials Outlook, to This report is a comprehensive market research study that examines semiconductor packaging technology trends. The die paddle serves primarily to mechanically support the die during package manufacture.
The actual concentration of electrons is typically very dilute, and so unlike in metals it is possible to think of the electrons in the conduction band of a semiconductor as a sort of classical ideal gas , where the electrons fly around freely without being subject to the Pauli exclusion principle.
In most semiconductors the conduction bands have a parabolic dispersion relation , and so these electrons respond to forces electric field, magnetic field, etc. For partial filling at the top of the valence band, it is helpful to introduce the concept of an electron hole.
Although the electrons in the valence band are always moving around, a completely full valence band is inert, not conducting any current. If an electron is taken out of the valence band, then the trajectory that the electron would normally have taken is now missing its charge.
For the purposes of electric current, this combination of the full valence band, minus the electron, can be converted into a picture of a completely empty band containing a positively charged particle that moves in the same way as the electron.
Combined with the negative effective mass of the electrons at the top of the valence band, we arrive at a picture of a positively charged particle that responds to electric and magnetic fields just as a normal positively charged particle would do in vacuum, again with some positive effective mass.
When ionizing radiation strikes a semiconductor, it may excite an electron out of its energy level and consequently leave a hole. This process is known as electron—hole pair generation. Electron-hole pairs are constantly generated from thermal energy as well, in the absence of any external energy source. Electron-hole pairs are also apt to recombine. Conservation of energy demands that these recombination events, in which an electron loses an amount of energy larger than the band gap , be accompanied by the emission of thermal energy in the form of phonons or radiation in the form of photons.
In some states, the generation and recombination of electron—hole pairs are in equipoise. The number of electron-hole pairs in the steady state at a given temperature is determined by quantum statistical mechanics.
The precise quantum mechanical mechanisms of generation and recombination are governed by conservation of energy and conservation of momentum.
As the probability that electrons and holes meet together is proportional to the product of their numbers, the product is in steady state nearly constant at a given temperature, providing that there is no significant electric field which might "flush" carriers of both types, or move them from neighbour regions containing more of them to meet together or externally driven pair generation.
The probability of meeting is increased by carrier traps—impurities or dislocations which can trap an electron or hole and hold it until a pair is completed. Such carrier traps are sometimes purposely added to reduce the time needed to reach the steady state.
The conductivity of semiconductors may easily be modified by introducing impurities into their crystal lattice. The process of adding controlled impurities to a semiconductor is known as doping. The amount of impurity, or dopant, added to an intrinsic pure semiconductor varies its level of conductivity. Doped semiconductors are referred to as extrinsic. By adding impurity to the pure semiconductors, the electrical conductivity may be varied by factors of thousands or millions.
The addition of 0. The materials chosen as suitable dopants depend on the atomic properties of both the dopant and the material to be doped. In general, dopants that produce the desired controlled changes are classified as either electron acceptors or donors.
Semiconductors doped with donor impurities are called n-type , while those doped with acceptor impurities are known as p-type. The n and p type designations indicate which charge carrier acts as the material's majority carrier. The opposite carrier is called the minority carrier , which exists due to thermal excitation at a much lower concentration compared to the majority carrier.
For example, the pure semiconductor silicon has four valence electrons which bond each silicon atom to its neighbors. In silicon, the most common dopants are group III and group V elements. Group III elements all contain three valence electrons, causing them to function as acceptors when used to dope silicon.
When an acceptor atom replaces a silicon atom in the crystal, a vacant state an electron "hole" is created, which can move around the lattice and functions as a charge carrier. Group V elements have five valence electrons, which allows them to act as a donor; substitution of these atoms for silicon creates an extra free electron.
Therefore, a silicon crystal doped with boron creates a p-type semiconductor whereas one doped with phosphorus results in an n-type material. During manufacture , dopants can be diffused into the semiconductor body by contact with gaseous compounds of the desired element, or ion implantation can be used to accurately position the doped regions.
Some materials, when rapidly cooled to a glassy amorphous state, have semiconducting properties. The history of the understanding of semiconductors begins with experiments on the electrical properties of materials. The properties of negative temperature coefficient of resistance, rectification, and light-sensitivity were observed starting in the early 19th century.
Thomas Johann Seebeck was the first to notice an effect due to semiconductors, in This is contrary to the behavior of metallic substances such as copper. In , Alexandre Edmond Becquerel reported observation of a voltage between a solid and a liquid electrolyte when struck by light, the photovoltaic effect. In Willoughby Smith observed that selenium resistors exhibit decreasing resistance when light falls on them. In Karl Ferdinand Braun observed conduction and rectification in metallic sulfides , although this effect had been discovered much earlier by Peter Munck af Rosenschold sv writing for the Annalen der Physik und Chemie in ,  and Arthur Schuster found that a copper oxide layer on wires has rectification properties that ceases when the wires are cleaned.
A unified explanation of these phenomena required a theory of solid-state physics which developed greatly in the first half of the 20th Century.
In Edwin Herbert Hall demonstrated the deflection of flowing charge carriers by an applied magnetic field, the Hall effect. The discovery of the electron by J.
Thomson in prompted theories of electron-based conduction in solids. Karl Baedeker , by observing a Hall effect with the reverse sign to that in metals, theorized that copper iodide had positive charge carriers.
Johan Koenigsberger classified solid materials as metals, insulators and "variable conductors" in although his student Josef Weiss already introduced the term Halbleiter semiconductor in modern meaning in PhD thesis in In , B.
Gudden stated that conductivity in semiconductors was due to minor concentrations of impurities. By , the band theory of conduction had been established by Alan Herries Wilson and the concept of band gaps had been developed.
Walter H. Schottky and Nevill Francis Mott developed models of the potential barrier and of the characteristics of a metal—semiconductor junction. By , Boris Davydov had developed a theory of the copper-oxide rectifier, identifying the effect of the p—n junction and the importance of minority carriers and surface states.
Agreement between theoretical predictions based on developing quantum mechanics and experimental results was sometimes poor. This was later explained by John Bardeen as due to the extreme "structure sensitive" behavior of semiconductors, whose properties change dramatically based on tiny amounts of impurities.
This spurred the development of improved material refining techniques, culminating in modern semiconductor refineries producing materials with parts-per-trillion purity. Devices using semiconductors were at first constructed based on empirical knowledge, before semiconductor theory provided a guide to construction of more capable and reliable devices. Alexander Graham Bell used the light-sensitive property of selenium to transmit sound over a beam of light in A working solar cell, of low efficiency, was constructed by Charles Fritts in using a metal plate coated with selenium and a thin layer of gold; the device became commercially useful in photographic light meters in the s.
However, it was somewhat unpredictable in operation and required manual adjustment for best performance. In H. Round observed light emission when electric current passed through silicon carbide crystals, the principle behind the light-emitting diode. Oleg Losev observed similar light emission in but at the time the effect had no practical use. Power rectifiers, using copper oxide and selenium, were developed in the s and became commercially important as an alternative to vacuum tube rectifiers.
In the years preceding World War II, infrared detection and communications devices prompted research into lead-sulfide and lead-selenide materials. These devices were used for detecting ships and aircraft, for infrared rangefinders, and for voice communication systems.
Considerable research and development of silicon materials occurred during the war to develop detectors of consistent quality. Detector and power rectifiers could not amplify a signal. Many efforts were made to develop a solid-state amplifier and were successful in developing a device called the point contact transistor which could amplify 20db or more.
In Julius Edgar Lilienfeld patented a device resembling a modern field-effect transistor, but it was not practical. Hilsch and R. Pohl in demonstrated a solid-state amplifier using a structure resembling the control grid of a vacuum tube; although the device displayed power gain, it had a cut-off frequency of one cycle per second, too low for any practical applications, but an effective application of the available theory.
Holden started investigating solid-state amplifiers in The first p—n junction in silicon was observed by Russell Ohl about , when a specimen was found to be light-sensitive, with a sharp boundary between p-type impurity at one end and n-type at the other.
A slice cut from the specimen at the p—n boundary developed a voltage when exposed to light. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For devices using semiconductors and their history, see Semiconductor device. For other uses, see Semiconductor disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Find sources: Main article: List of semiconductor materials. Main articles: Electronic band structure and Electrical conduction. Electron hole. Carrier generation and recombination.
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Further information: Timeline of electrical and electronic engineering. Electronics portal. Feynman Lectures on Physics. Basic Books. Electrons and holes in semiconductors: Krieger Pub. Elizabeth A. Principles and Practices. March 4, Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
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