Commercial correspondence ashley pdf

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commercial correspondence - Ietters, faxes, and emails. The characteristic features of each are illustrated with examples, and guidance is. A. Ashley - Oxford Handbook of Commercial Tira Nur Fitria. lntroduction pdqe 5 n 1 Letters,faxes,and emails 7 o 2 = Contentand style 2s f+. OXFORD HANDBOOK OF. Commercial. Correspondence. Oxford universitypress need to write commercial correspondence in. English as part of .

Do not use obscure language e. Reply and Reply All. Never blame your own staff, and finally, while writing the complaint remember that your supplier will almost certainly want to help you and correct the mistake. On the other hand, he has waited long enough for his money, and cannot be expected to wait another sixty days, even with the interest offered. Thi s was not done wi th our last consi gnment and as a consequence ther e wer e br eakages see attached li st. The pr oceeds wi ll be cr edi ted to you as soon as Canadi an Tr ust r ecei ve the documents.

As this depends on the type of letter that you are writing, these topics will be dealt with in later units. In the middle paragraphs, planning is most important to make sure your points are made dearly, fully, and in a logical sequence.

Final paragraph At the end of your letter, if it is a reply and you have not done so at the beginning, you should thank your correspondent for writing. If appropriate, encourage further enquiries or correspondence, mentioning that you look forward to hearing fromhimor her soon.

You may want to restate, briefly, one or two of the most important points you made in the main part of your letter. Here are some examples of final paragraphs. Please contact us if you would like any further information.

A Handbook of Commercial Correspondence-A Ashley - English for Vietnamese

To summarize: I look forward to hearing from you soon. If you would like to place an order, may I suggest that you do so before the end of this month so that it can be met in good time for the start of the summer season?

I hope to hearfrom you in the near future. If there is any advice or further information you need, we would be happy to supply it and look forward to hearing from you.

In this letter, all the writer is trying to do is explain why he delayed paying his account but, because of the style, it is too long and is difficult to understand. Mr Aldine will be satisfied with it because it tells him— simply and clearly— what he wants to know. First, his customer uses his name. Second, he has apologized. Third, Mr Aldine knows his was not the only account that was not paid when due, and knows why. Finally, he has his cheque.

Ashley commercial pdf correspondence

Please accept our profuse apologies. We were unable to settle this matter due to the sudden demise of Mr Noel, our Accountant, and as a result were unaware of those accounts which were to be cleared. We hope that this unforeseen incident did not in any way inconvenience you, nor lead you to believe that our not clearing our balance on the due date was an intention on our part to delay payment.

I apologize for not settling the account sooner, but due to the unfortunate death of Mr Noel, our Accountant, there have been delays in settling all of our outstanding balances. Yours sincerely Your style should not, however, be so simple that it becomes rude.

Here is an example of a letter that is too short and simple. This should have been cleared three months ago. You seemunwilling to co-operate in paying us. We'll sue you if you do not clear your debt within the next ten days. Yours, etc. As there has been no reply, I shall have to consider handing over the matter to our solicitors. However, I amreluctant to do this and amoffering a further ten days for the account to be settled. Yours sincerely a p I s p u e l u a l u o In the version of the same letter, notice the stylistic devices that are used to make it more polite: This should have been cleared I shall have to consider This means that, generally speaking, you should aimfor a neutral tone, avoiding pompous language on the one hand and language which is too informal or colloquial on the other.

You may set the wrong tone by using the wrong vocabulary or idioms, or using short forms inappropriately. Here are a few examples, together with a preferred alternative.

Apart fromthe danger of being misunderstood if your correspondent's first language is not English, he or she may think you are being too familiar. Confusion in correspondence often arises through a lack of thought and care, and there are a number of ways in which this can happen. Abbreviations and initials Abbreviations can be useful because they are quick to write and easy to read. But both correspondents need to know what the abbreviations stand for. Some international organizations, e.

National organizations, e. If you are not absolutely certain that an abbreviation or set of initials will be easily recognized, it is best not to use it. We saw on page 8 that the use of figures instead of words for dates can create problems. Numerical expressions can also cause confusion. For example, the decimal point in British and American usage is a full stop, but a comma is used in most continental European countries, so that a British or American person would write 4.

If there is the possibility of confusion, write the expression in both figures and words, e. Prepositions Special care should be taken when using prepositions. Spelling, punctuation, and grammar should all be checked carefully. Many people have come to rely on the spellchecker in their computers to ensure that there are no spelling mistakes.

But a word spelt incorrectly may forma completely different word, e. Please give it some though the writer means thought ; I saw it their the writer means there. A spell checker would miss these mistakes. There is no substitute for carefully reading, or proofreading a letter that you have written. Thies, names, and addresses Use the correct title in the address and salutation.

Spell your correspondent's name correctly nothing creates a worse impression than a misspelled name , and write their address accurately. If you do not know your correspondent, do not assume that they are one sex or the other, i.

References When replying to a letter, fax, or email, quote all references accurately so that it is immediately clear to your reader what you are writing about. Special care should be taken when quoting prices or giving specifications such as measurements or weights. Quoting these incorrectly can cause serious misunderstandings.

Check, too, that you have enclosed or attached the right documents. When ordering, make sure you quote the order number correctly, especially in international trade where mistakes can be very expensive in both time and money. Points to remember 1 Include the right amount of information.

If you are responding to an enquiry, make sure you have answered all the writer's questions. Make sure you say everything you want to say, and in a logical sequence. Do not use colloquial language or abbreviations that your reader may not understand. Write numbers in words as well as figures. Pay special attention to details such as titles and names, and references and prices, and remember to check enclosures or attachments.

Make sure everything is as it should be. The contents of an enquiry will depend on three things: There is a difference between asking a computer company about the cost of installing a complex computer network and asking a publisher about the price of a book. Tell your supplier what sort of organization you are.

How did you hear about the company you are contacting? It might be useful to point out that you know their associates, or that they were recommended to you by a consulate or trade association.

Marco Gennovisa of Milan that you are interested in supplying It is possible to use other references.

Could you send us Aglaqa5 , ,c'ealiWegues, palca Has, etc. This can be done by letter, fax, or email, but remember to give your postal address.

It is also helpful to point out briefly any particular items you are interested in. We are particularly interested in stands suitable for displaying furniture. Please send us any information you can supply, marking the letter For the Attention of Professor Kazuhiro: If replying to an advertisement, you should mention the journal or newspaper and its date, and quote any Box NUMBER or department number given, e.

Box No. A; Item no. Asking for samples, patterns, and demonstrations You might want to see what a material or itemlooks like before placing an order.

Handbook of Commercial Correspondence Workbook

Most suppliers are willing to provide samples or patterns so that you can make a selection. However, few would send a complex piece of machinery for you to look at. Instead, you would probably be invited to visit a showroom, or the supplier would offer to send a representative. In any case, if it is practical, ask to see an example of the article you want to buy.

Could you therefore send us at least two examples of the 'Sprite' range? Therefore I would be grateful if you could arrange for one of your representatives to call on me within the next two weeks. SuzzeztOnag tams, methods of payment, and discounts Companies sometimes state prices and conditions in their advertisements or literature and may not like prospective customers making additional demands.

However, even if conditions are quoted, you can mention that you usually expect certain concessions and politely suggest that, if your terms were met, you would be more likely to place an order.

As a rule, our suppliers allow us to settle by monthly statement and we can offer the usual references if necessary. As we intend to place a substantial order, we would like to know what quantity discounts you allow. Asking for goods on approval, or on sale or return Sometimes retailers and wholesalers want to see how a LINE will sell before placing a firm order with a supplier. The supplier would also place a time limit on when the goods must be returned or paid for.

However, we would only consider placing an order if it was on the usual basis of sale or return. If this is acceptable, we will send you a firm order. While we appreciate that increasing pressure from wildlife protection societies is reducing the demand for real furs, we are not sure how our customers would react to synthetic alternatives. However, we would like to try a selection of designs. Would it be possible foryou to supply us with a range on an approval basis to see if we can encourage a demand?

Three months would probably be enough to establish a market if there is one. They are often used when the job is a large one, e. When the work is for a government, or is a large undertaking, there are often newspaper advertisements inviting tenders. The Irish Tourist Organization invites tenders from building contractors to erect seating for to, people for the Dublin Summer Festival.

Tenders should be in by I March 20—, and will be assessed on price and suitability of construction plans. The Zena Chemical Company invites tenders from private contractors for the disposal of chemical waste. Only those licensed to deal with toxic substances should apply.

Further details from The work will include erecting buildings and providing facilities such as ski slopes and parachute jumps. The deadline for completion is the end of December 2 o—. If you can provide a competitive estimate please contact us at We are writing to several engineering designers, including yourselves, who we think may be interested in converting the plant to a fully automated production unit. Enclosed you will find the specifications. We would welcome inspection of the site by your surveyors, with a view to supplying an estimate for the reconstruction.

Closing Usually a simple 'thank you' is sufficient to close an enquiry. However, you could mention that a prompt reply would be appreciated, or that certain terms or guarantees would be necessary. We would therefore need your assurance that you could meet all delivery dates.

You can also indicate further business or other lines you would be interested in. If a supplier thinks that you may become a regular customer, they will be more inclined to quote competitive terms and offer concessions. If the product is satisfactory, we will place further orders with you in thefuture. Yours faithfully F. Raval M. Please send me a prospectus, details of your fees, and information about accommodation in London for the period July to December.

If possible, I would like to stay with an English family. Yours faithfully Y. If these examples were sent as email messages, it would be acceptable to remove the salutation and change the complimentary close fromYours fait hfully to the less formal Thanking y ou in ad vance. I would appreciate a prompt reply quoting trade prices. The advertiser gave little information, so the writer asks for details. Could you tell us if the CDs are leading brand names, or made by small independent companies, and whether they would be suitable for domestic recording?

We would appreciate it if you could send us some samples. If they are of the standard we require, we will place a substantial order.

Ashley pdf correspondence commercial

We would also like to know if you offer any trade discounts. Yours faithfully P. Gerard M. Gerard say We are a large music st ore? Could you send us your latest catalogue and pr i ce li st, quoti ng your most competi ti ve pr i ces? O ur pr i nci pals ar e a lar ge chai n stor e i n Nor th Amer i ca and wi ll pr obably place substanti al or der s i f the quali ty and pr i ces of your pr oducts ar e sui table. Many thanks. Llowe sanlo.

S u ect: The buyer explains how he got to know about the manufacturer, and suggests that a quantity discount and acceptance of his method of payment would persuade himto place an order.

We wer e i mpr essed by the new desi gns di splayed on your stand at the Hambur g Menswear Exhi bi ti on last month.

If these condi ti ons i nter est you, and you can meet or der s of over 5 00 gar ments at one ti me, please send us your cur r ent catalogue and pr i ce li st.

We hope to hear fr om you soon. Peter Cr ane Chi ef Buyer F. If possible, quote box numbers, catalogue references, etc. Therefore it is not usually necessary to use a salutation. See pages 27 for more on email. However, letters are different. Mention your prospective customer's name, e. Thank the writer for his or her enquiry. Mention the date of his or her letter and quote any other references.

Confirming that you can help Let the enquirer know near the start of your reply if you have the product or can provide the service he or she is asking about.

It is irritating to read a long letter only to find that the supplier cannot help. A simple answer that you have the goods in stock is not enough.

Your customer might have made ten other enquiries, so remember it is not only in sales letters that you need to persuade. Mention one or two selling points of your product, including any guarantees, special offers, and discounts. Suggesting alternatives If you do not have what the enquirer has asked for, but have an alternative, offer that.

But do not criticize the product he or she originally asked for. It also saves on oil as it Its steel casing has been replaced by strong plastic, which makes the machine much lighter and easier to handle. Tareton Plastics have produced a high- quality substitute, letherine: We feel confident that the samples enclosed will convince you If this is the case, tell the enquirer and, if possible, refer themto another company which can help them.

I am sorry we cannot help you. Their address is All our garments are now polycotton, which is stronger, needs little ironing, and allows variations in pattern, which you can see on our website at www. However, if you are only interested in pure cotton garments, we advise you to contact Louis Fashions Ltd at Even if you can handle the enquiry, you may still have to refer the enquirer elsewhere.

Therefore, I suggest you contact our agent, R. Depre SA, rue Montpellier 28, Paris, They carry the full range of our products. Sending catalogues, price lists, prospectuses, and samples Remember to enclose current catalogues and price lists with your reply. If you are attaching catalogues, price lists, etc.

If prices are subject to change, let your customer know. It is bad policy suddenly to send a letter telling a customer that prices have been increased by ten per cent after you have quoted a firmprice.

The units you referred to in your letter are featured on pp. When ordering could you please quote these numbers? The samples you asked for will follow under separate cover. It can be adapted to your specifications see the section 'Structural changes' on page However, we have included a German translation for the relevant pages and hope this will prove helpful. Arranging demonstrations and visits Certain products, e. In these cases the supplier will either send a representative or adviser, or suggest that the customer visits their showroom.

We therefore suggest that you visit our centre in Birmingham, where the equipment is set up, so that you can see the machine in action. If you are interested in a visit, please fill in the enclosed pre-paid card and return it to us. The address is We suggest you contact us to arrange a convenient date. Closi ng Always thank the customer for contacting you. If you have not done so at the beginning of the letter or email, you can do so at the end.

You should also encourage further enquiries. We would welcome any further questions you might have. Please remember that we offer a full three-year guarantee. Below is a guide to the subjects you should cover. These goods are exempt from V AT. A quotation is not necessarily legally binding, i.

However, when prices are unstable, the supplier will say in their quotation that their prices are subject to change.

If the company makes afirmoffer, it means they will hold the goods for a certain time until you order, e. Again, this is not legally binding, but suppliers generally keep to firm offers to protect their reputation.

I will inform you immediately if this happens. Whenever possible you should quote prices in your customer's currency, allowing for exchange fluctuations. They are revised regularly, and additional terms may be added, e. The main Incoterms are in four groups, which are named after the first letter in the term. Group C The seller covers only the costs listed to get the goods to a named destination, e. Group D The seller carries all the costs and risks to get the goods to a named destination. Group E The buyer pays all costs once the goods have left the seller's premises.

Group F The seller delivers the goods to a carrier who is appointed by the buyer. Incoterms are quoted in correspondence in the following way: Abbreviations for Incoterms may also be written in lower case, e. Two other terms which should be noted, but which are used mainly in the UK, are: Discounts Manufacturers and wholesalers sometimes allow a discount i.

These are of different kinds, e. Methods of paynnecrit When quoting terms, you may require, or suggest, any of several methods of payment, e. The same as c FR, except the seller also pays the cost of insurance.

The seller pays all delivery costs to a named destination. The buyer pays any additional costs after the goods have been delivered to a nominated carrier. The seller pays transport and insurance costs to a named destination, but not import duty. The seller pays all delivery costs on board ship, but does not clear the goods for import at the named port of destination. The seller pays all delivery costs to a port named by the buyer, but does not clear the goods for import at the named port.

The seller pays all delivery costs, including import duty, to a named destination in the importing country. The same as DD P, except that the seller does not pay import duty. The seller pays all delivery costs to the buyer's carrier, and clears the goods for export.

The seller pays all delivery costs to the port. The buyer pays for loading the goods on to the ship and all other costs. The seller pays all delivery costs to when the goods are on board ship at a named port. The buyer pays all other costs. Do not make a promise that you cannot keep as it will give you a bad reputation. If a delivery time is a condition of ordering, the customer could reject the goods or sue you if you break the contract.

However, we could guarantee delivery within four weeks. Fazed terms and negotiable terms You can quote terms in two ways: In the two examples below, the writers make firmquotes, indicating that methods of payment and discounts are fixed. However, unless otherwise stated, payment should be made by 3o-day bill of exchange, documents against acceptance. In the next two examples, the use of the adverbs normally and usually soften the tone of the statements to indicate that, although the company prefers certain terms, these can be discussed.

In the final example the supplier softens the tone further by asking the customer to confirmwhether or not the arrangement is satisfactory. Please let us know if this arrangement is satisfactory. More often, however, they will send their official estimate formwith a covering letter. We would like to draw your attention to the trade and quantity discounts we are offering in our Special Purchases section on pp.

Please contact us if we can be of any further help. Yours sincerely Tug. Details of fees and accommodation in London for that period are covered in the booklet 'Living in London' which accompanies the prospectus. At present we still have places available for students taking the English for Business Executives course beginning in July, but would ask you to book as soon as possible so that we can reserve a place for you and arrange accommodation with an English family.

We are sure you will enjoy your stay here and look forward to seeing you. Yours sincerely M. I enclose a catalogue giving detailed information about our heavy goods vehicle tyres, including the impressive results we have achieved in rigorous factory and track tests. Please note especially the items on safety and fuel economy—the main selling points of this product.

We would be pleased to supply any further information you require. Gerard wrote to R. He implied that his store was a large one,that he was only interested in high-quality products, and that he might place a substantial order. This is the reply.

Gerard Manager Disc S. Gerard Thank you for your enquiry of 12 May in which you asked about the CDs we advertised in this month's edition oflectron'. I can confirmthat they are of high quality, and suitable for domestic recording. They are 'Kolby' products, a brand name you will certainly recognize, and the reason their prices are so competitive is that they are part of a consignment of bankrupt stock that was offered to us.

Because of their low price, and the small profit margin, we will not be offering any trade discounts on this consignment.

But we sell a wide range of electronic and computer products and have endosed a price list giving you details of trade, quantity, and cash discounts. We have sent, by separate post, samples of the advertised CDs and other brands we stock, and would urge you to place an order as soon as possible as there has been a huge response to our advertisement.

Thank you for your interest. Yours sincerely R. Gerlach Sales Director Enc. As the agent made no reference to any particular line of chinaware she was interested in, and did not mention terms, this reply takes the formof a sales letter. You will see that we can offer a wide selection of dinner and tea services ranging fromthe rugged 'Greystone' earthenware breakfast sets to the delicate 'Ming' bone china dinner service. You can choose frommore than fifty designs, which include the elegance of 'Wedgwood', the delicate pattern of 'Willow, and the richness of 'Brownstone' glaze.

We would very much like to add your clients to our worldwide list of customers, and could promise theman excellent product with a first-class service. We would be glad to accept orders for any number of pieces, and can mix sets if required. If there is any further information you need, please contact us, or go to our website at the address above. Once again thank you for your enquiry. Yours sincerely j. Mert ot i. Merton Mr Sales Manager Enc.

Regi ster ed No. However , the newpr oduct has not yet been tested and she knows nothi ng about i ts per for mance or safety.

Pdf commercial correspondence ashley

Enqui r y K15 3, K15 7 uni ts subjebt-: I r egr et to say that we ar e out of stock of K15 3 and K15 7 uni ts, and do not expect another deli ver y unti l later thi s month. We ar e cur r ently testi ng a consi gnment fr om Tai wan, but these do not have a Belgi an Standar ds Insti tute stamp of appr oval and we would li ke to complete our tests befor e putti ng them on the mar ket.

We wi ll contact you agai n as soon as our testi ng i s completed, or when the uni ts you r equested ar e avai lable, whi chever date i s the ear li er. Notice how Sig. Causio of Satex does not turn down his requests but makes a counter-offer.

Via di Pietra Papa, 6 Roma Dear Mr Crane We were pleased to receive your enquiry, and to hear that you liked our range of sweaters. We can confirmthat there would certainly be no trouble in supplying you fromour wide selection of garments. However, we would be prepared to review this once we have established a firmtrading association with you.

Enclosed you will find our summer catalogue and price list quoting prices c IF London. We are sure you will find a ready sale for our products in England, as have other retailers throughout Europe and America, and we hope very much that we can reach agreement on the terms quoted. Yours sincerely D. Causio D.

Causio Sig. Sales Director Encs. Causio agree to all Mr Crane's requests concerning discounts? Causio indicate that his company deals internationally? This example illustrates an estimate sent in tabulated formin the body of a letter. It refers back to the exchange of email messages o.

This includes materials and labour. Rewiring; fixing power points, boxes, etc. We can also confirmthat the job will be completed before the end of February provided that no unforeseen circumstances arise. If you have any further questions, please contact our Senior Supervisor, Mr Terry Mills, on the above number, ext. Yours sincerely P. A covering letter is preferable as it allows you the opportunity to make any necessary points and confirmthe terms that have been agreed. The guide below is for an outline of a covering letter.

You may not want to make all the points listed, but look through the guide to see what could be mentioned. Opening Make it dear that there is an order accompanying the letter. Bifor 25 tlearsound' transisto r receivers. Enclosed you will find our official order No. Please find enclosed Discounts Confirmthe agreed discounts. Delivery Confirmthe delivery dates. Nevertheless, to ensure prompt and safe delivery, it is a good idea to advise the company on how you want the goods packed and sent. This means that if the consignment arrives late, or in a damaged state, your letter is evidence of the instructions you gave.

Note, in the first example, that crates are often marked with a sign— a diamond, a target, a square, a lion, etc. Although an advice note can be sent by fax or email, the customer may need to present original documents e. Of course these cannot be faxed or sent by email. Y ou should contact us immediately if any problems arise. Thank you for your order, and we hope we can be of further service in the future. This can be done by letter, or by email for speed o. The following examples can be used in both emails and letters.

We are now dealing with it and you may expect delivery within the next three weeks. Order DR4 9 March Attn. Causio Dear Sig. Causio Please find enclosed our official order, No. DR4 If you do not have any of the items we have ordered currently in stock, please do not send alternatives. We would appreciate delivery within the next six weeks, and look forward to your acknowledgement.

Order No. DR4 1 On whose terms are F. DR 4 Satex S. Why do you think it is relatively small? We have all the i tems i n stock and wi ll advi se you about shi pment i n the next few days.

Vi a di Pi etr a Papa, Roma Telefono: We ar e sur e you wi ll be ver y sati sfi ed wi th the consi gnment and look for war d to your next or der. Advice of despatch o This email message confirms that Satex have sent the order. The shipping documents will then be sent to F. They have agr eed to pay by letter of cr edi t, whi ch we di scussed on the phone last week, and they would li ke deli ver y befor e the end of thi s month, whi ch should be no pr oblem as ther e ar e r egular sai li ngs fr om Li ver pool.

If the colour s they have chosen ar e not i n stock, they wi ll accept an alter nati ve pr ovi ded the desi gns ar e those sti pulated on the or der.

Handbook of Commercial Correspondence Workbook

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