Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Instructor Public Speaking for College & Career 10th Edition, Kindle Edition. by Hamilton Gregory (Author). Public Speaking for College & Career, 10th Edition [Hamilton Gregory] on mmoonneeyy.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Public Speaking for College . Introduction to Public Speaking: Chapter 1 from Public Speaking for College and Career, Ninth Edition by Gregory,. 2. 2. Controlling Nervousness: Chapter.
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View a full sample. To avoid memory lapses during a speech, a memorize basic facts before the speech, b prepare a word-for-word script, c prepare a card with key information on it, d learn to eliminate nervousness 5. The idea is that you start with a small, unthreatening situation and work your way up to larger audiences and longer speeches. Solutions Manuals are available for thousands of the most popular college and high school textbooks in subjects such as Math, Science Physics , Chemistry , Biology , Engineering Mechanical , Electrical , Civil , Business and more. In filling your mind with images before a speech, you should picture yourself speaking with confidence, poise, and completely without nervousness.
Describe an instance of miscommunication between you and another person friend, relative, salesperson, etc. Discuss what caused the problem, and how the interchange could have been handled better. Miscommunication can occur between two persons when the persons fail to communicate the message clearly to the receiver. The causes for miscommunication are as follows: The instance of miscommunication between two persons X and Y in the workplace is mentioned below: It means to think and understand what the manager wants to say.
The miscommunication takes place between the person X and Y. Hence, miscommunication can take place due to lack of proper understanding and linguistic difference between the people. The interchange and miscommunication can be handled in this situation by clarifying the doubts of the employees.
When idioms are used the meaning in the context need to explain for the employees in the meeting, then only the employees can get the real essence of the meeting. Chegg Solution Manuals are written by vetted Chegg 18 experts, and rated by students - so you know you're getting high quality answers.
Solutions Manuals are available for thousands of the most popular college and high school textbooks in subjects such as Math, Science Physics , Chemistry , Biology , Engineering Mechanical , Electrical , Civil , Business and more. It's easier to figure out tough problems faster using Chegg Study. This is a matter you should discuss with a physician or therapist.
Musicians who use beta-blockers need a medication to prevent tremors while they are playing an instrument; as a public speaker, trembling is not as important an issue—by using gestures and movement, you can dissipate the nervous tension that causes tremors.
I lean against medications, for the following reasons: If, after consulting your physician, you do plan to use medication, a word of caution: You should never take any kind of medicine right before a speech if you have no experience with it; you can never predict how it may affect you.
Breathing Exercises. In the days and weeks before your speech, and during the minutes immediately preceding your speech, you may want to try breathing exercises to lower your tension level. The wrong kind of breathing can be harmful. If you take rapid, shallow gulps, you can hyperventilate and feel dizzy.
If you breathe with your upper chest the way you would do if you were running a race , you might stimulate your central nervous system—just the opposite of what you want. The kind of breathing that will truly relax you is done through the diaphragm the muscular part of your respiratory system that separates the chest from the abdomen.
To practice this, lie on your back and put a hand lightly on your stomach.
Keeping your mouth closed, breathe through your nose in such a way that you feel your stomach rising as you inhale and falling as you exhale. Make your inhalation and exhalation last the same amount of time, and count to yourself One, two, three, four…. The idea is to be relaxed. After you have practiced this lying down, practice it sitting in a chair.
Once you have become proficient, you will be able to do the exercise while waiting to be called to speak, and no one in the audience will realize what you are doing. The counting part, by the way, is a very good way to get your mind distracted from your anxiety. Muscular Relaxation. Here is a technique you can do a few hours before you leave home to give your speech: Lie down on a bed or a reclining chair and make yourself as relaxed and comfortable as Chapter 2 Managing Nervousness possible.
Clench your left fist as tight as you can, then relax. Observe the contrast between tension and relaxation.
Clench your left fist again as hard as you can, then relax. Once more notice the difference. Now do the same thing with your right fist. Proceed in this way through all your major muscle groups—arms, lips, jaw, neck, shoulders, chest, stomach, hips, thighs, calves, etc.
Tense each muscle, then relax it. Desensitization Many phobias have been cured by a psychological therapy called desensitization. In therapy, he puts himself into a state of deep relaxation and then goes through a series of events. First, he looks at pictures of snakes in a book; he does this until he feels no trace of fear. Next, he views real snakes through a window.
When he becomes comfortable with this stage, he goes on to the next: Then as the days go by and he becomes less and less frightened, he moves closer and closer to the snake—perhaps even to the point of touching it himself.
At the end of such therapy, many phobics are able to resume their normal lives—such as going outdoors in the summertime—without being terrified by fear of snakes. This same sort of therapy has worked with speech phobics. The stages might go something like this: The idea is that you start with a small, unthreatening situation and work your way up to larger audiences and longer speeches.
Write down on cards a series of fearful events starting with mildly frightening and going up the ladder to extremely frightening. Your hierarchy might look like this: Take each card in order and imagine the scene. If you feel anxiety, use breathing or muscle-relaxation exercises to calm yourself. When you have reached the point where you can visualize the scene without anxiety, you are ready to go on to the next card.
When you reach the most important card— giving the speech—fantasize success. Imagine yourself as a confident, self-assured, poised speaker. Visualize the audience looking at you with interest and respect.
Cognitive Therapy One therapy that can be used in conjunction with those already mentioned is designed to change your cognitions—or thoughts—about yourself as a public speaker.
On a piece of paper write down your negative thoughts about yourself and your speech on the left-hand side; then on the right-hand side write down positive alternatives. Here are some examples: Negative Thought: Chapter 2 Managing Nervousness Negative Thought: And acting like a winner can make you one.
Some speakers handle their fright by pretending to themselves that they are someone else, like actors on a stage. If your name is Sandra Smith, for example, you could pretend that the person giving the speech is Sandra Smith, the world-famous orator, a person who is highly confident in talking to audiences. Giving Your Speech When you stand up to deliver your speech, bear in mind two important pieces of advice: No matter how miserable you are, no matter how bad your panic, no matter how constricted your throat, you must finish your remarks.
Therefore, long before the day of your speech, vow to yourself that under no circumstances will you sit down before your speech is completely finished. It is important that you stop your speech the instant you feel yourself losing control.
How long should you pause? As long as it takes for you to regain control of yourself. Yes, I know that silence is terrifying, but it is terrifying to no one but you. It seems like an eternity to you, but they will scarcely notice.
And when you resume your speech, they will be so interested in following your ideas that in a few minutes they will have forgotten all about your pause. What should you do during the pause? That is up to you. You may want to prepare an emergency kit in advance—a handout or a visual aid such as a chart—something you can pull out during your pause so that attention is diverted away from you.
While your audience is looking at the chart or handout, you of course have a chance to pull yourself together. Being a Winner If you are a phobic, being a winner sometimes means doing nothing more than giving a speech from start to finish—never mind how good it is. The important thing is to confront your problem head-on. Chapter 2 Managing Nervousness I am not going to pretend that your task will be easy. But I will say that if your worst fears are realized you pull a mental blank, for example , it is not the end of the world.
Your only task right now is to get through the speech. Even if you shake like a leaf, keep going until you reach the end. And then, whether the speech was good or bad, you will have established the fact to yourself that you can give a speech. If you do panic or choke up, remember that most people in an audience know from first-hand experience what stage fright feels like and they are very sympathetic.
They are not expecting a brilliant performance. Just like them. Just like you and me. Or that your ideas will be rejected or ridiculed? If you have these fears, you are like many business and professional people. They might be laughed at and viewed as fools. In the workplace, this play-it-safe attitude causes stagnation.
In public speaking, it creates speakers who are bland, predictable, and boring. Striving for perfection is a hopeless goal, for we are all human, and being human means making mistakes. When I give a speech, I do my best but I know that I am far from perfect. I know that some of my ideas may be misunderstood because of my shortcomings.
I know that I may unintentionally choose a word or an anecdote that causes laughter at my expense. Here are some points to bear in mind: A mistake is no big deal. If you make a blooper, join in the laughter. Because I give many speeches, I make my share of bloopers. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this presentation? Why not share! An annual anal Embed Size px. Start on.
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