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contributions to American and world literature. The Dutch culture in colonial New York was of particular interest to Irving. He published a mockserious history of. In this history of American literature, I have tried to be responsive to the ference – has been to 'uninvent' the reading of American literature that sees America. attention to important historical and cultural influences on these authors, defines a Tracking literary movements can help you see how American literature has.


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1 The First Americans: American Literature During the Colonial In this history of American literature, I have tried to be responsive to the immense changes that. Writing the Nation: A Concise Introduction to American Literature— to Present is licensed .. and second half of the literary history of the United States. A STUDENT'S HISTORY OF. AMERICAN LITERATURE. CHAPTER I. EARLY COLONIAL LITERATURE. I. The English in Virginia. II, Pilgrims and.

In the pre-Revolutionary period in America there were only a few economic topics that attracted any attention. The French Influence. As early as years before the familiar quatrain was current in England, and by the tune was familiar enough in America to be cited it. Table of contents Acknowledgments xi 1 The First Americans: Karl FoUen. The Rev. Beginning in the early eighties the chairs of political economy and an opportunity was given to our university students for advanced study of economics at home.

First published: Print ISBN: About this book Updated throughout and with much new material, A History of American Literature, Second Edition, is the most up-to-date and comprehensive survey available of the myriad forms of American Literature from pre-Columbian times to the present.

The most comprehensive and up-to-date history of American literature available today Covers fiction, poetry, drama, and non-fiction, as well as other forms of literature including folktale, spirituals, the detective story, the thriller, and science fiction Explores the plural character of American literature, including the contributions made by African American, Native American, Hispanic and Asian American writers Considers how our understanding of American literature has changed over the past?

Reviews "Richard Gray's real achievement is somehow to have compressed more than years of thrillingly rich literary history between two covers. Free Access. Summary PDF Request permissions. Tools Get online access For authors. Email or Customer ID. Forgot password? Old Password. New Password. From he was a member of the American Philosophical Society, to whose interests he gave much time and energy, and to which he communicated his papers, for example, his English Phonology 18 17 and his report on The Structure of the Indian Languages 18 DuPonceau is notable also for his broad conception of the future of American literature, which he wished to emancipate from provincialism by bringing it into the great Continental European tradition.

His discourse. Pickering's Greek and English Lexicon a translation of SchreveUus projected and partly executed in 4 just misses being the earliest of all the Greek-English lexicons. Acquainted with Oriental languages, including Chinese and a number of African and Pacific dialects, Pickering was one of the founders and was the first president of the American Oriental Society.

He lectured to popular audiences upon ChampoUion's discoveries concerning the hieroglyphic language of Egypt. Today he is best remembered by his work on Americanisms, as presented to the American Academy in and published the next year in enlarged form an invaluable record of American speech in the first quarter of the.

He mingled freely in the gay and the learned society of Venice, carrying on numerous love intrigues. At Dresden he made translations and redactions of plays for the Electoral Theatre thence he removed to Vienna, where he became acquainted with Mozart, and wrote the libretti for Figaro and Don Giovanni , produced Driven away by court intrigues Da with brilliant success.

Ponte in went with his young English wife to London, and there made his headquarters for some twelve years, writing for the ItaUan theatre, touring the Continent to engage singers, opening an Italian book shop, and always more or less retreating from his creditors, from whom, indeed, he retreated to Philadelphia in Again he moved about erratically, but he settled finally in New York in , gave ItaHan lessons Fitz-GreeneHalleck was one of his pupils , again opened a book his sonnets.

His own Don Giovanni was performed with great eclat. He published several volumes of Italian verse, gave lectures and conversazioni upon Italian literature; read and expounded Alfieri, Metastasio, Tasso, and Dante to his pupils, and in published in The New York Review interpretative notes upon several passages of the Inferno.

This was the first time Dante had been taught or commented upon in America Ticknor's classes in Dante did not begin until 1 83 1. In , upon Da Ponte's offer to give instruction in Italian gratis at Columbia College, he was named professor inane munus, for he had neither salary nor fees nor pupils.

His Memoirs, published in New York in , also belong in the great Venetian eighteenthcentury tradition with those of Goldoni and Carlo Gozzi, and bring back the merry time of ridotti and cicisbei, of petits abbes, theatrical cliques and claques, and wandering adventurers. How this echo of the days of Cagliostro and Casti and Casanova happened to be first heard in the New York of is ;.

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That American scholarship owes Da Ponte no great debt is not his fault. The time and the ground were not prepared for him. He is significant rather as the most brilliant of the group which transmitted to America the traditions of an urbane a humane Latin culttire. After 5 the stream of Romanic culture seems not to have.

Americans had gone abroad to get it. The German immigration to New York and Pennsylvania in the eighteenth century brought few scholars. It was not until that the pioneers of the riper German culture, Karl Beck i and Karl. FoUen , arrived, at a time when Everett, Ticknor, Cogswell, and Bancroft had all returned from their studies in Germany.

FoUen and Beck, like Pietro Bachi, who came a year later, emigrated in consequence of the disturbances that attended the end of the Napoleonic regime. FoUen had taken part in the war of liberation and had been one of the founders of the Burschenschaften.

Charged with complicity in the assassination of Kotzebue, he made his escape to Switzerland, and then to Paris. There he feU in with his friend Karl Beck, likewise a refugee, and the two together came to America. Northampton, Massachusetts. In he became professor of Latin at Harvard, where he remained until his death in James Freeman Clarke, and himself entered the UnitaIn he was advanced to a fuU professorship of the German Language and Literature, which, however, was endowed for a period of five years only.

He published a German reader and a German grammar His loss of his Harvard position is thought to have been due to his anti-slavery propaganda; and thenceforth he threw himself stiU more enthusiastically into speechmaking and preaching.

George Bancroft' from Germany, the German influence in American scholarship becomes palpable. Bancroft and Cogswell established the Round Hill School, which in some ways was modelled upon the German gymnasium, and which sent out many boys who afterwards became distinguished.

Bancroft left it in Cogswell, who remained till , was a rolling stone and did not really find himself until past fifty. In New York in he became acquainted with John Jacob Astor, and led him to establish the Astor Library, of which, after Astor's death in , Cogswell was appointed superinHis only important literary Library Catalogue Greek Literature at Harvard, had gone abroad in and had achieved the doctorate at Gottingen in 7.

Thereafter he went alone on the Greek tour which for a while Cogswell and Ticknor had been planning to take with him, and became acquainted with Adamantios Koraes just before the outbreak of the Greek war for independence. Returning in full of enthusiasm for learning and for Greece, he gave lectures which must have been inspiring, else Emerson would not have praised him so highly.

We need to reform our secondary schools," Everett had written from Gottingen; and the want of adequate preparation on the part of his pupils may help explain why he left no school. Moreover, he soon resigned his professorship and his editorship of The North American Review, to enter public life and though he was afterward president of Harvard College, he is known no more His writings show him rather in the as an American scholar. Having graduated from Dart'.

From 18 10 Ticknor read law and in 18 13 was admitted to the bar, but he gave up practice in a year. The country, he thought, "would never be without good lawyers," but would urgently need "scholars, teachers, and men of letters. Through the summer and autumn of 18 14 he worked hard at German, borrowing a grammar from Edward Everett, sending to New Hampshire, where he "knew there was a German dictionary," and translating Werther from John Quincy Adams's copy, stored at the Athenaeum.

Before going abroad, though, he must make the American grand tour to Washington and Virginia. During the winter of 1 8 he travelled by slow stages and sometimes under difficulties as far as Richmond, everywhere supplied with introductions to and from eminent persons such as John Adams, President Madison, and Thomas Jefferson. Already he was exhibiting the social gifts which later distinguished him a power of holding substantial conversation when that was in order; a tact that kept him wisely and quizzically silent during an outburst of bad temper on the part of Adams, and in the presence of Jefferson's philosophical oddities; together with a cool sub-acid judgment in estimating and reporting such phenomena as these and the ways of men in general.

At Liverpool and on the way to London he paid his respects to Roscoe arid to Dr. In London he met Hallam, and various lesser scholars. At Gottingen Ticknor settled down to a monastic regimen of study, He met the Homeric Wolf, coryphaeus specializing in Greek.

German philologists," then on a visit to Gottingen; and, during an eight weeks' holiday trip across Germany, Gesenius and Goethe. For a full year he continued his classical studies without any notion that his field was to lie elsewhere. From of. Byron in London he had got hints for a tour in Greece, and he was preparing to make it, when late in Harvard offered him the College Professorship of the Belles Lettres and the Smith Professorship of the French and Spanish Languages and Literatures, then just established upon the death of its founder Abiel Smith.

Accordingly Ticknor gave up his Greek tour, and after a few months in Gottingen began in the spring of 7 an extensive course of travel and study in the Latin countries. In Paris he worked with great diligence at French and Italian. In Rome by November he studied Italian and archasology.

In Madrid he at once settled into his habitual studious ways. During the summer and autumn of he made several excursions and a considerable journey in Spain and Portugal; whence in November he went via England to Paris again.

Here he privately studied Spanish literature, Portuguese, and ProIn London in January, , he dropped study for vencal. Picking out, as was usual with him, a specialist to help him in his studies, he read Scotch poetry. Here he frequented the Tory circle of Mrs. Grant of Laggan, and made the acquaintance of.

At Hatton he saw old Dr. Parr once more, who condemned everything contemporary but gave Ticknor his blessing. In London again, early in April, Ticknor went with Irving to the "damning of a play" and afterwards to the Lord Mayor's ball, which he also damns in a series of contemptuous remarks about the "City crowd. Ticknor was as much at home with the "big Whigs" Tory of AbbotsToriusve ford Whig mihi nulla discrimine agetur, he might have said but he could not abide a Philistine or a Bohemian.

At the end of April, , after a brief visit to Roscoe in Liverpool, he sailed for home, and reached Boston early in June, with an equipment far beyond that of any previous American student. His teaching at Harvard began in the same year and continued until he resigned in Like Everett's, it was so far in advance of his time and of the training his students brought to it that he founded no school of research and made no But he greatly improved disciples in advanced scholarship.

These reforms being opposed,. President Kirkland, Ticknor felt, after sixteen years of service, all the missionary work that could reasonably. He resigned his professorship, and made a second sojourn in Europe , Longfellow having been chosen to be his successor. This second residence in Europe Ticknor undertook not primarily as a student but as a ripe scholar and although he had as yet produced no great work, he was everywhere received as one whose standing was assured.

The acquaintances he formed or renewed are too numerous to be even catalogued in In England he saw a good deal of the scientific men. At full. Dresden he examined Ludwig Tieck's collection of Spanish books, and he joined the scholarly circle of Prince John of Saxony.

In Berlin in the spring of Ticknor visited the church historian Neander, and saw Alexander von Humboldt frequently. In Vienna, in June, he examined the old Spanish books in the ;. December, and in which he remained until May of He went north for the summer again, to Venice, Innsbruck, and Heidelberg, and to Paris for the winter, where he looked over the Spanish library of Ternaux-Compans and frequented the study of Augustin Thierry.

By March, , Ticknor was in England again, having long talks with Hallam. He once more visited Southey and Wordsworth at Keswick was disappointed ;. Ruskin," who had a most beautiful collection "of sketches, himself, from nature, on the Continent"; and heard. Upon the third and last of his European tours, undertaken in for the sake of the library, he had little time for his own studies, but he was lionizedbeing now the author of a famous book as never before, and moved in the most brilliant society.

At home again from September, , Ticknor took up once more his life of study and business, serving the library until , revising the History of Spanish Literature for its third and its fourth editions, maintaining a voluminous correspondence, and, after the death of Prescott in , writing his Life At this time, too, Ticknor resumed his active interest in Harvard. It is necesthat of a great. The Life, a treasury of anecdote and portraiture, which it costs an effort not to quote, would, if well annotated, be found to be also a compend-.

Rome and Florence Ticknor than any other American, and than any but a few of the most highly placed Europeans. His Life is, emphatically, good reading, and can only increase in interest with time. His History of Spanish Literature has so impressed critics. Ticknor has reared. Very few indeed of his attributions need revision in the light even of the acutest His very comprehensive bibHography, later scholarship.

His thoroughness extends also to a pretty full use of existing authorities, Spanish, German, French, and English. His combination of their re-. In many fields of Spanish thing; definitive work is another. But the later regroupings and higher generalizations of the inductive process, the perception of broad differences, resemblances, connections, and literature it.

There were temperamental reasons, too, why Ticknor could never have made such a higher synthesis. He belongs essentially to the hard-headed group of American writers who, like Andrews Norton, stopped short of transcendentalism. More serious temperamental defects are still to be mentioned. The plain fact is that Ticknor did not posfacts;. His lack of the sense for sequence, ar;. In his references to French literature, which in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance was so closely connected with Spanish, he disparages Ronsard and misassigns him with the decadents he has not a word about Du Bellay and, almost incredibly, he seems not even to have known of the Chanson His want of ear and want of the sense of arrangede Roland.

Only occasionally does it attain anything worthy of the name of style. Ticknor, as has been intimated, left no school; though American scholars have since studied cosas de Espana, they do not take him for their point of departure, and his work ends rather than begins an era. It belongs in fact rather with the discursive historical work of Irving and of Prescott than with the minute textual studies and editions which have been the chief task of later Spanish scholarship in of.

Longfellow never studied under him, and took his own scholarship according to his own poetic temper. Ticknor retired from Harvard when Lowell was a sophomore; and there was no sympathetic contact between the two in later years. Charles EKot Norton came to Harvard after his "Uncle Ticknor" had gone, and his studies in Dante give no sign of contact with those of his kinsman. The impulse after toward the study of the modern languages and literatures was due rather to the immigration which had been set up by the European troubles of , and which brought many cultivated Germans and Frenchmen to the United States.

Marshall EUiott soon interested a sufficient number of advanced teachers of the modern languages to found in the Modern Language Association of America, " of which he was the first secretary, and of whose Publications, also suggested by him, he was the first. For twenty-five years, also, until his death, he edited Modern Language Notes, now continued by his former The progress of "modern colleague, James Wilson Bright.

University production obtained its other great successes in the philology of the classics, of general linguistics, of English,. Gilmer had enteachers whom gaged abroad. Its first professor of the Ancient Languages was George Long, who is best known for his transla-.

See Romera-Navarro, Charles Francis Adams's address, A College Fetich, delivered at Harvard in June, , independently excited public interest in the subject. Marcus Aurelius and of Epictetus Upon recall in to the chair of Greek at the newly established.

Harrison thereupon applied the comparative method to his own studies and teaching long before it had been practised elsewhere in America, or in England, or had been generally accepted even in. Among classical scholars in America as elsewhere two types are distinguishable; the one indulging its aesthetic appreciation, historical and archaeological associations,. Felton , like Harrison, his exact contemporary, all his training in this country.

Seven years after his graduation from Harvard he became in Eliot Professor of Greek Literature, made his first journey abroad in ,. The close friend of Longfellow, Felton, was a genial soul, enthusiastic for antiquity, who rather deprecated minute grammatical study and overmuch concern with choric metres and textual readings and emendations. These things he thought dried up the springs of human in the student. He favoured instead the appreciative. The fruits of his journey were his Selections from Modern Greek Writers and several series of Lowell Institute lectures, published posthumously as Greece, Ancient and Modern.

Theodore Dwight Woolsey , who graduated at Yale in , was in Germany and France from to , studying with Welcker, and with both Hermann and Boeckh.

In he was present at the "Literary Convention" held in New York, which was the first important American assemblage of professional educators, and was associated with the founding of New York University. Woolsey and others among them, Francis Lieber addressed the convention in defence of liberal studies. At Yale he was professor of Greek from 1 to , and president from till he resigned in 1. He edited. Like Felton,. Woolsey did not train professional philologists, but did much to induct American youth into a liberal education.

He exhibits the Yale sobriety and lucidity that is characteristic of his uncle, Timothy Dwight, and of his younger contemporaries, James Hadley and William Dwight Whitney; and like Lieber and Hadley he turned from the classics to political science and law.

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Others of this generation worked at lexicography. John EvangeHnus Pickering's Lexicon has already been mentioned. Apostolides Sophocles , born in Thessaly, taught Greek at Yale from to , and thenceforth at Harvard,.

Modern Greek. He published a Greek Grammar in , but what makes him memorable is his compilation of the Greek Ducange, his great Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods To Henry Drisler are due most of the emendations in the second edition of Sophocles's Drisler, who was a professor of Greek in Columbia Lexicon. With Howard Crosby , he founded in the "Greek Club" which ended with his life. Andrews which in turn was revised and re-edited in by Charlton Thomas Lewis 1 , an ex-professor of Greek who at the time was practising law in New York, and Charles Lancaster Short , professor of Latin in Columbia College.

The next generation turns somewhat decisively to the ideals College, also prepared. James Hadley , before he entered Yale had "read as much Greek and Latin as Macaulay had read during his whole school and university life. Dwight Whitney, he had been studying Sanskrit under Edward Elbridge Salisbury , then our only trained Oriental scholar, who had but two pupils in Sanskrit Hadley and Whitney, duos sed hones.

Whitney went abroad to continue. Hadley married and settled in New Haven, where he remained until his death. When Hadley decided to become a philologist, Benjamin Peirce said that one of the finest mathematical minds of his generation was lost in fact, Hadley 's work produces an irresistible impression of sheer all-round power.

The day of narrow specialization had not come, and Hadley could write with equal authority a Greek Grammar i ; a Brief History of the English Language; and Lectures on Roman Law The Greek Grammar, as revised by his studies;. Forest Allen in , and the Brief History of the by G. Kittredge, are still in use. They ;. Early English Pronunciation, and wittily demolItaliker und Graken. They contain, finally,. In the light of such work, Whitney's opinion that Hadley was "America's best and soundest philologist" is not a friendly exaggeration,.

Hermann, Welcker, Heyse,. Ernst Curtius, and others, Lane received his degree at Gottingen in for a dissertation which has remained an authority upon the history of the city of Smyrna. In the same year he succeeded Beck as professor of Latin, and served until , promoting the work of the graduate school of research, and offering courses. Latin Pronunciation said to have "worked a revolution in exterminating.

Lane wore his learning lightly and was remarkable for his wit. Allen contributed the historical and archaeological material to the Allen and Greenough series, and later edited Tacitus.

Greenough in was appointed to a Latin tutorship at Harvard, and was professor of Latin from until the year of his death. He taught himself Sanskrit, became interested from the first in comparative grammar and general linguistics, ;.

Analysis of the Latin Subjunctive The principles here laid down and followed seem to show that Greenough was strongly influenced not only by the German originators of the.

Whitney as well, whose Language and the Study of Language had appeared at the very time when Greenough was undertaking his researches. Greenough introduced the teaching of Sanskrit and comparative philology at Harvard, and gave courses in them from until the appointment of C.

Lanman as professor of Sanskrit in In , likewise, he published with Joseph Henry Allen a Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, founded on Comparative Grammar, in which he applied the methods and amplified the results of the Analysis. This, though in name only a schoolbook, contains in its successive editions the results of Greenough's research, and has been widely influential upon the subsequent study of Latin syntax. Kittredge prepared together, presents in racy and readable form the substance of much solid scholarship.

Greenough was active in the development of the Harvard Graduate School; established in the Harvard Studies in Classical Philology; introduced reading at sight into. Lane and Child and Goodwin, delighted in learned fun. Frederic DeForest Allen in was appointed Hadley's successor at Yale, and in was called to Harvard as the first professor of Classical Philology, where he remained until his death.

Those who could best judge his work found in him a tireless questioner of traditions, an essential investigator; and what he investigated was the life of the ancients.

He considered classical learning to be " a great branch of anthropology, giving insight, when rightly studied, into the mental operations and intellectual and moral growth of ancient peoples. To him, literature and monuments were records of life, and they were to be interpreted by it and in turn were themselves. Greek Grammar, revised and in part re-written , and a translation of the Prometheus Bound but he published many short papers, chiefly upon etymologies, inscriptions, and ancient music and metres.

In and he had charge of ;. William Watson Goodwin , after his graduation in 1, studied at Gottingen, returned in as tutor in Greek, and was Eliot Professor of Greek from i until his resignation in His Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of the Greek Verb i has passed through many editions and revisions, and still holds the field as an epitome of classical usage.

Its lucid analysis and arrangement and copious citations of its basic material make it both a reference book and a thesaurus. Its results enter more briefly into the Greek Grammar of , which like Moods and Tenses remains in current use after a good half-century. Goodwin also revised Felton's edition of the Panegyricus of Isocrates , and edited The Clouds and the collected translation of Plutarch's Morals, by several hands The Agamemnon, in his text, was performed at Harvard in His greatest at.

Lanneau Gildersleeve, still living as the dean of American philologists, was born in at Charleston, South CaroBasil. After his graduation at Princeton in , he studied under Boeckh, Schneidewin, and Ritschl at Berlin, Bonn, and Gottingen, where he achieved the doctorate in with a dissertation upon Porphyry's Homeric studies.

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At the University of Virginia he was from to professor of Greek, and from to , professor of Latin. Upon the establishment of the Johns Hopkins University in he was appointed to its first professorship, that of Greek, which, as Emeritus, he still holds.

He gave powerful aid in making the university a true school of research and his own department a training ground for philologists. American Journal of Philology, which from the first took high rank as a repository of solid contributions to philology modern as well as classical, and which published from time to time the results of his own research, both in extenso and in the notes and short reviews which filled his special department, "Brief Mention.

His Latin Grammar had already reached a stage of induction which enabled its analysis to stand as the method of the Syntax of Classical Greek , 1 still. Professor Gildersleeve himself confesses that he used his edition of the Apologies of Justin Martyr and his edition of Pindar chiefly as a repository of his syntactical theories an assertion doubtless flavoured with Socratic irony. His Syntax has recorded and explicated usage without resort to metaphysics.

Through his publications he has exercised a very great influence upon many scholars who were not his students, but who acknowledge that they "have all been to school to Gildersleeve. Mahaffy, he seems to grow weary of the high and central classics his Pindar is his only edition of any one of them , and to turn with a certain relief to secondary writers, like Persius where he followed Gildersleeve as professor of Greek, wove classical studand English together, considering the study of EngHsh partly " as an IntroducHe later was professor of English tion to the Study of Latin and Greek" at Columbia University.

But his disillusionment brings with it no impairment of his wit, and this, despite the irrelevancies into which it often leads him, is both brilliant and profound. Everywhere his essential esprit and intellectual energy, when they do not bewilder the reader and leave him far behind, delight and stimuA literary satirist, Gildersleeve should have written late him.

Upon Gildersleeve all the ends of the world are come ;. From to Whitney studied in Berlin under Weber,. Bopp, and Lepsius, and at Tubingen under Roth. Returning to the United States in , he was next year appointed Salisbury's successor in the chair of Sanskrit, his duties including He was not released instruction in the modern languages.

Edgren, and WiUiam Rainey Harper, who well represent the variety of interests arising from the studies which Whitney directed. From Whitney had been a member of the American Oriental Society, and he. From to more than half of the Society's Journal came from his busy pen. He was also one of the foimders and was the first president of the American Philological Association.

Whitney produced a large volume of work, and left his mark upon many different departments of scholarship. His important achievements in his particular field of Indology can be truly evaluated only by Indologists. His first large work in Indian scholarship was his edition, with Roth, of the Atharva-.

Veda-Sanhita , and his very last was the translation same Veda, edited after his death by Charles R.

Lanman Whitney edited in the Aiharva-Veda-Pratigdkhya Whitney not only out-Hindus the Hindu for minutiae, but also, such is his command of form, actually recasts the whole so that it becomes a book of easy reference. Whitney's book goes behind the Hindu grammarians and rests upon direct induction from the texts. Beginning thus with the phenomena, Whitney might not be too severely condemned if, like Ticknor in the Spanish Literature, he had failed to rise much above their merely factual level.

Whitney has thus left for the use of students in Indo-European linguistics an organon that is not illuminating concepts. Whitney's works upon the general science of language Language and the Study of Language , The Life and Growth of Language , etc. Against the idealism, transcendentalism, and logical fallacies of Muller, Whitney takes a distinctly common-sense and almost pragmatic view.

Language is for him a human institution, an instrument made by man to meet human needs, and at no time beyond human control. It has to be acquired afresh by every speaker, for it is not a self -subsisting entity that can be transmitted through the body or the mind of race or.

Whitney thus decisively ranges himself against and determinist theories of the nature of language. Upon the origins of language, though he declined to commit himself, as feeling that the evidence warranted no positive assertion, he yet felt equally certain that the evidence did not individual. The trend of Whitney's opinion, though he asserts nothing positively, is towards a single primal language. As in Indology, so in general linguistics, Whitney left a. They emphasize the importance of analogy economy, as chief among the psychic factors that must be added to the physical in order to account fully for All Whitney's modes of thinking tended linguistic change.

The forward look is equally characteristic of his work in orthography and lexicography, which assumed that neither in meaning nor in form is language to be dominated by its past. He consistently and lucidly favoured a reformed speUing, but here too his common sense and regard for present actualities controlled his doctrine, and he never made among the lay public any propaganda looking to the adoption of a phonetic system.

In the same way, when he came to the making of The Century Dictionary, he conceived it as bound to offer, not a standard of "correctness" derived from classical periods in the past, but a compendium of the actual use and movement of the word throughout its history. Together with this kinetic conception both of the vocabulary and of the semantics of his Dictionary, Whitney gave the most minute attention to his etymologies and definitions.

Among the editors of Webster's Dictionary in , Whitney and Daniel Coit Oilman had had special charge of the revision of the definitions for the Century Whitney obtained the assistance of his brother Josiah in de;. The result was an extensive vocabulary intensively defined.

The etymologies are brought up to the state of knowledge in The quotations undated perts in their special fields. Whitney's own writing is a model of lucid exposition.

It neither has nor needs adventitious ornament it does not even need the play of humour to make his most technical essays There are to be sure, flashes of a polemic wit, but readable. Whitney seems to divine that particular analysis of his material which will carry the reader cleanly through it.

The ultimate impression left by his writings is that of a powerful intellect controlling enormous masses of fact and moving among them as their masTo be interesting, such power needs no play other than ter.

English philology of the nineteenth century in America began with old-fashioned descriptive rhetoric and with in;.

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English language, and amassed solid materials for inferences about English usage; and it emerged at length into distinctly literary studies. Yale in has been indicated in President Stiles's Inaugural Oration. Almost at the same time Timothy Dwight, then a tutor, "gave a lettres.

Rhetoric at Yale, however, was until a late period generally rather a step-child in the family of the arts. At Harvard, rhetoric has been taught continuously and systematically. The sum left by Nicholas Boylston for the foundation of a professorship of Rhetoric and Oratory having accumulated until , John Quincy Adams was installed and held the chair until His Lectures on Rhetoric and Oratory 18 10 , to the number of thirtysix, begin with the regular defence of rhetoric against its maligners; move historically through Greece and Rome down to Quintilian, with, however, only the barest mention of Aristotle and thence build upon a combination of Cicero's analysis invention, disposition, elocution, memory, and pronunciation or action with Aristotle's classification of all oratory as demonstrative, deliberative, and judicial, adding a modern class, The discussion throughout is illuseloquence of the pulpit.

From a comparison of the orator's opportunity in ancient and in modern times, they proceed through the usual apology for rhetoric to. They omit the discussion of composition itself in its parts and phases, and treat instead the standards and the forms of criticism, with what looks like a distinct plea in defence of the cryptic and Orphic utterances of the transcendentalists.

Channing, like Adams, is descriptive and critical rather than practical he gives a student standards by which ;. Furness, and Andrew Preston Peabody, the last of whom considers Channing's appointment as "perhaps the most important ever made in the interest of American literature. Channing's personal conferences with students over their work foreshadowed the changes which the nineteenth century wrought in the philology of rhetoric.

Rhetoric has moved from oratory and public speaking to writing, and to speaking as a preparation for writing. It has moved from written. It has and style to the study of It has moved from rules, through. These seldom deal with linguistic groups than the phrase, and never with the sentence; they are interested for the most part in the history of words and locutions and they all sooner or later discuss Americanisms as an exceedingly interesting phase of this history.

Though they all more or less tell the reader what to say and not to say, they are writers on diction. The first of this group seems to have been George Perkins Marsh At Dartmouth College he read Latin and Greek far beyond the requirements of the curriculum, and taught himself to read fluently French, German, Spanish, Portuguese,. Rafn of Copenhagen; and in printed an Icelandic grammar.

His appointment in as minister to Turkey enabled him to travel extensively, and nourished still further his somewhat exotic powers. In he went to Athens as special minister to Greece.

It was in that he delivered at Columbia College, as one of the "Post-graduate" courses of instruction organized , his Of the thirty lectures, seven deal with the sources, composition, and vocabulary of the language, six with parts of speech and grammatical inflections, three with English as affected by the art of printing, three with rhyme, alliteration, and assonance, and others with pronunciation, synonyms, the principles of translation, the English Bible, corruptions of English, and the English Language in America.

He died which he was appointed by Lincoln in Marsh was an early and frequent contributor to The Nation; prepared a number of articles, chiefly on Spanish, Catalan, and Italian literature, for Johnson's Cyclopaedia; and wrote monographs on The Camel and on Man and Nature afterwards issued as The Earth as Modified by Human Action, His philological work is spoken of with respect by the other members of the group, even by Fitzedward Hall.

Richard Grant White , who will demand attention later as one of the outstanding American editors of Shakespeare, At some time he was a pupil of Lorenzo Da Ponte. Italy, to. A second series, Every Day English, appeared in In these books. White, of New England Brahmin stock, made up for having been accidentally born in. New York by exhibiting all the linguistic and racial prejudices attached to English usage an alluring and a threatening social sanction, which helps partly to explain his popularity.

His prohibition of certain forms of speech is "exof Boston. Social distinction was thus the prize which White offered, with a precariousness that rendered it only the more attractive. It soon became evident that he had not sufficiently studied the history of some of the locutions which he condemned "had rather," "reliable," and "is being built," for example; but when taken to task for setting up clusiveness" in linguistic disguise;. White's more relevant defence was that historical usage afforded after all only the raw material from which present writers and speakers might choose, exercising by way of principles of selection both taste especially in the direction of simplicity and reason, to which White thought usage tended continually to.

His chief opponent was the incomparably more scholarly Fitzedward Hall i Hall, of the Harvard class of , just before graduation left college to search for a runaway brother in India. In the fifties and sixties he edited a number of Sanskrit texts, as well as a Hindi grammar and reader, but in the seventies and the eighties his. His Recent Exemplifications of False Philology 1 though ,.

Johnson, and others who have Coleridge,. Wherever Hall attacks. Yet the actual influence of White has probably been greater, and this not without reason. Hall often adopts a tone of personal vituperation which antagonizes while His own crabbed sentences go far to exasperate it amuses. White, though he tried to schoolmaster the language, did generally prefer the things which are of good report; and his precepts, apart from certain easily exploded pedantries, made in general against affectation and for simplicity.

The solid masses of Hall's erudition have needed to be diluted for popular consumption, and it is this dilution that Professor Lounsbury performed in some of his less weighty works, for example.

The Standard of Usage in English. The Harvard achievement in rhetoric is matched by the Yale achievement in lexicography. Noah Webster , a Connecticut farmer's ooy, graduated at Yale in , and after studying law and teaching school in several Connecticut towns, compiled in the years following his Grammatical Institute of the English Language, in three parts: Dictionary of , at once takes independent Yankee ground. Webster was not to be imposed upon by even the authority of the English Johnson the locution "never so wise," opposed by skeptic, proposed Johnson, he favoured on historical grounds of analogy.

In fact, Webster grounds by Johnson, he opposed on had taught himself some Anglo-Saxon, and, however imperfectly. In these respects his Dictionary anticipates the methods of the larger American Dictionary of the English Language of , in the preparation of which he spent the next twenty years. Meanwhile there should be noted the appearance of a dictionary by Burgiss Allison: This is an abridged form of material which Allison promised to issue soon without abridgment but whether he did so is not certain.

What distinguishes his work is that he aimed not merely at utility, as Webster did, but at "fixing a standard," and that he had enlisted the interest of "many distinguished Characters, and Seminaries.

The reception of their collective observations, and through them of the literati in general, must eventually furnish a highly perfected acquainted with.

It was unfortunate that Webster did not come into contact with the "literati," for they would have enabled him before his second edition, and all the more before his third, to correct his work by means of the comparative method which had been elaborated in Germany. Yet even had the complete method of Grimm and Bopp been accessible to him in , Webster, then seventy years old, could hardly have been censured for not acquiring at that age a new set of highly inflected languages with complex inter-relations, or even for not realizing that the new method would kill his old etymologies.

But the fact seems to be that he was simply unster lived to. Webster much enlarged Johnson's vocabulary, admitting a large number of technical terms which Johnson considered In this respect Webster's broad per-. He was open-minded and meant his book to be serviceable to the common man.

In spelling, though phleteer served. Webster's definitions are admittedly his forte. They are untinged with personal bias; they are proportioned in space to the importance of the word and the number of its meanings; and they are so phrased that generally they can be Quotations it was Webster's substituted for the word itself.

Though in England Webster's Dictionary has not superseded Johnson's, it soon became the standard in the United States. The revision of , conducted by Chauncey A. Goodrich, his fondness for. Goodrich who died in i and by Noah Porter, with a staff which included C. Mahn of Berlin who revised the etymologies , W. This has been the basis of later revisions, gradually getting rid of. Supplement, still edited by Noah Porter, who had now associated with himself WilHam Torrey Harris; and in the seventh edition the New International "entirely remade,".

Sturges Allen, who had been on the staflE of the original International, as general editor. Joseph Emerson Worcester i , a graduate of Yale in 1 and Hawthorne's schoolmaster at Salem in , afterward removed to Cambridge, where he came to be numbered among the eccentric characters of the place, and produced school books and books of reference in history and geography.

His series of dictionaries , , , brought on the "War of the Dictionaries" with Webster and his adherents. Apart from irrelevant personalities, the controversy is reducible to one between a retiring and conservative scholar, willing to record the actualities of usage, and a brisk business man and. Worcester's large Dictionary of the English Language i for a few years rivalled the Pictorial Weblinguistic reformer. As has been noted, Jefferson favoured the study of the Germanic languages in general, and gave them a place in the proposed curriculum of William and Mary College and of the University of Virginia.

Though he made no independent research into any of these languages, he had diligently studied and annotated several Anglo-Saxon grammars; he read Old English "with his feet on the fender" and in the course of his works he expressed many ideas on English philology, some erroneous but all interesting. Blaetterman was succeeded by Charles Kraitsir, who published among other works a Glossology: Probably the first Anglo-Saxon texts and grammar to be published in America were those edited by Louis F.

Klipstein, a native of Virginia and a graduate of Hampden-Sidney College, who also studied at Giessen. He wrote and edited other books dealing with Anglo-Saxon, and planned stiU more, aU of them deriving not from the German scholarship of his day but from EngUsh models. Webster's son-in-law. In 1 Child introduced it at Harvard. In it reached Lafayette; in , Haverford; in , St. Fowler by his teaching and Webster through his writings are said to have "exercised a dominant influence" on the mind of Francis Andrew March , a graduate of Amherst.

As Enghis like the Greek and Latin" became. For this process March's method was admirably fitted. These books gave a minimum of text and a maximtim of questions and notes on grammar, syntax, and etymology.

As a classical scholar cient classics or in their stead,. March's chief work, however, lay in EngHsh philology. His work in lexicography is also notable. For several years he cooperated with the Oxford Dictionary by selecting and direct-. As consulting editor he planned the Standard Dictionary The Thesaurus Dictionary of the English Language , said to have been "prepared under the supervision of Francis Andrew March," is really a recension of Roget, for which March "did little more than read printers' proofs and contribute a 'Foreword.

They are all derived, with a minimum of editorial work, from contemporary. The possible exception is the Philadelphia anonymous but pretty surely edited by Joseph Dennie, who, adopting Reed's text of , made a few English editions. The Boston edition of , edited anonymously by Oliver William Bourn Peabody i , at that time an editor of The North American Review, is the first American Shakespeare which at least professes to base its text independently upon the In point of fact, Peabody's text is mainly that of Folio of Singer; there are very few avowed textual emendations; and of these about one-third "do not follow the Folio, although they Peabody's few notes deal with the would better have done so.

It is his distinction to have been the first Amertext as such. Verplanck the subjective and aesthetic criticism of the Romantic School avowedly enters American Shakespearian scholarship, coinciding rather closely with transcendentalism in general, which had no Shakespearian scholar. The romantic treatment of Shakespeare reaches its culmination in the essays. It makes many needless textual changes, some them rather wild conjectural emendations of his own, but most of them adopted from other editors.

His notes are very full and often obvious. His Introductions and Commentary in general, like the Lectures which preceded the edition and. Coleridgean type of criticism the type of criticism which endeavours to set forth Shakespeare's inwardness, and pays comparatively little attention to his outwardness. The plays are. Richard Grant White's Shakespeare' s Scholar criticized acutely the manuscript "corrections" in J. Collier's then famous and afterward notorious "Perkins Folio. His edition of Shakespeare and his later Studies in Shakespeare , though they retain certain characteristics of the Romantic School, exhibit on the whole a healthy reaction against it such as became the friend of Lowell and of Norton.

White is romantically inclined to a personal interpretation of Shakespeare's Sonnets. In the matter of emendations he is exceedingly cautious too cautious to suit tos, accepting. Furness was a member of the Shakespeare Society of Philadelphia established 1 85 1 and the oldest Shakespeare society in existence under its influence he is said to have begun about a variorum text of Hamlet, and it may be that the plan for the New Variorum originated among the members of In any case, though Furness was a Harvard this Society.

He conceived the immediate need for his edition to be that the Cambridge edition of "did not give the history of variant readings in ;. Besides these there are notes explanatory and interpretative, as well as prefatory and appended editorial matter of various kinds, including much aesthetic criticism. Furness in fact was primarily interested, very much as Hudson was, in each play as a selfPreoccupied thus with the inwardness of subsisting entity.

Shakespeare, he neglected some material that a variorum edition ought to include much of the later criticism that deals with Shakespeare's outwardness; with matters like chronology,.

Even without it, the. Francis James Child , who graduated at Harvard remainder of his Hfe in the service of the University. In , when he returned from two years' study of Germanic philology at Gottingen and Berlin, he succeeded. His critical annotated edition of Four Old Plays was the first of the kind to be produced in America.

From onward, as general. Spenser, according to Professor Kittredge, "remained after editor of a series of the British poets,. Instead, he proceeded. His Observations on Language of Chaucer i put definitely out of date the random and arbitrary opinions favourable or unfavourable, untrue or accidentally true which critics had ever since the Renaissance been pronouncing upon Chaucer's versification, and placed the matter henceforth upon a basis of exact knowChild's work has not had to be done over again; it has ledge.

The Ballads of , though it easily superseded all other collections, was for Child only a coup d'essai, its material mostly from printed sources. The great English and Scottish Popular Ballads of is based as much as possible upon manuscript sources, especially the Percy Folio manuscript and Sir Walter Scott's collections at Abbotsford. Child had decided "not to till he had exhausted every effort to get hold print a line of whatever manuscript material might be in existence.

His collection is thus both a definitive corpus of English ballad materiaP and a notable exemplar of the comparative study of literature. In both his fields of scholarship Chaucer and the ballad Child left numerous disciples and besides the legacy of a fixed body of material ready to be taken as a point of departure, he left the materials for a very lively and still very active controversy upon ballad origins, into which, however, it is impossible Child himself died before completing the last to go here.

The animation and playfulness of Child's learning must not go unmentioned. His humour everywhere leavens and feeds the very substance of his work a humour which, playing with the solid materials of his scholarship, would have made him the ideal editor of those. It was the fortune of Thomas Raynesford Lounsbury to produce studies of both Chaucer and of Shakespeare. In he was appointed instructor in English in the newly established Sheffield Scientific School at Yale, and in sane,. Parlement of Foules in His History of the English Language has gone through many editions and still holds its place as a standard textbook.

It was in 1 that he published The Studies in the ripe results of his labors upon Chaucer. Chaucer comprise eight monographs. The first two present Chaucer's biography one the biography as far as it is established by evidence and duly guarded inference from the documents, the other the mythical biography or Chaucer Legend. The third monograph, that on Chaucer's text, is an admirable popular account of the method of textual criticism.

The fourth presents Lounsbury's canon of Chaucer's work. The fifth, that on Chaucer's learning, is admirable again in its comprehensive view of Chaucer's sources and of the use he made of them.

The sixth consists of two sections, one on Chaucer's language, and the other on his religion. The seventh and the eighth, perhaps the most valuable of all, treat respectively Chaucer's "fortunes" Chaucer in Literary History and his craftsmanship Chaucer. Their arguments Chapter that Chaucer's spelling and pronunciation should be.

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Yet, volume for volume, it would not be easy to find anywhere a set of more solidly valuable literary studies. They have served to give body and weight to many a student's vague conceptions of Chaucer, and, as their style is popular, they must also have carried their substantial materials to many "general" readers. Soon it appeared that the treatment accorded the text by editors and critics depended in great measure upon their conception of Shakespeare's art hence Lounsbury, in much the same way in which he had studied the "fortunes" of Chaucer, was led to study the "fortunes" These, as might have been expected, proved of Shakespeare.

It shows, what had perhaps been only suspected or inferred, that Shakespeare was, throughout, an encouragement to the more "romantic" party in the controversies; contrary to an to classicists;.

With the volume on Voltaire the field of controversy becomes international: Voltaire's exile and return; his initial appreciation of Shakespeare and later recoil from its revolutionary consequences his belief in the dangers of a bar;. Kames, Walpole, Johnson, and Garrick, and the retroactive effect upon his own reputation in England; finally the persistence of his authority as literary arbiter upon the Continent even to the day of Goetz von Berlichingen, when the Mede was at the gate and the handwriting clear upon the wall.

The third volume centres upon Pope's and Theobald's editions of Shakespeare the meannesses of Pope and the significance of the first version of the Dunciad as a piece of Shakespearean controversy; Bentley's emendations of Paradise Lost and the discredit they brought upon all verbal criticism, including the prospective criticism of Theobald the history, in a word, of the means by which one of the ablest of all the editors of Shakerelations with. Lounsbury will, it is safe to say, be remembered partly as a before,.

It will be possible, however, to treat J. Stillman, and It. Harvard in , spent five years in business and travel in India and in Europe, was abroad again in England and Italy in , and after his return busied himself with writing for the newly estabUshed Atlantic Monthly and with bringing out certain books of his own. The Civil War gave to his political opinions a stamp which they never lost. From to he was in Europe again. From to , when he became Emeritus, he held at Harvard the professorship of the History of Art.

These men, as well as his American friends, Lowell, Longfellow, Emerson, George William Curtis, and others, found in him a remarkably receptive and interpretative mind, together with an uncompromising rectitude and independence of judgment traits which made him an admirable friend to men of gifts more conspicuous than his own, and eminently qualified him for his literary executorships and editorships.

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He brought out, for example, various portions of Carlyle's correspondence and reminiscences the correspondence with Emerson and with Goethe , Reminiscences , and letters and the letters of Lowell , George William Curtis's Orations and Addresses , further Emerson letters those to Samuel G.

Ward, , and Ruskin's letters to Norton. Of the building of this cathedral he gives a detailed account which anticipates in many ways the method and content of his later Historical Studies of. Church Building in the Middle Ages. Norton's judgment of painting and architecture at this time suffers severely from the despotism of Ruskin, the Ruskin of Modern Painters, whom Norton had first met in Like Ruskin, he can find little to praise after ; and even the fifteenth century comes in for some rather severe reflections.

Nothing is worth while but Gothic, and the merits of Gothic consist in its being like nature and at the same time Norton did not trouble to explain how an expression of the deepest and highest religious aspirations of man.

There is many a wall in Rome made of old materials strikingly joined together, bits of ancient bricks stamped with a consular date, pieces of the shaft of some marble column, fragments in the vein of Carlyle; while. Greene, James T. Fields, William Dean Howells, and others, used to gather on Wednesday evenings at Longfellow's house to offer their suggestions and criticisms upon Longfellow's trans-.

This informal Dante Club was the precursor of the Cambridge Dante Society, the foundation of which Norton suggested to some members of his Dante class at Harvard in These students offered to support the plan, and when Longfellow consented to take the presidency Its second of the club, it was actually inaugurated The Society issues president was Lowell; its third, Norton.

Norton published his own translation of the Commedia. Here the Dante seems to have fused with the austerity of the Norton stock to produce something more austere than. Norton's teaching and writing about the fine arts soon became emancipated from the extreme of Ruskin's influence; the relation was reversed; and Ruskin rather looked upon his younger friend as his "tutor," recognizing in him a mental balance and a steadfastness that he knew to be wanting in himself.

Norton, to be sure, retained the strongly ethical trend of his He never achieved the economic precision of who considers Chartres as releasing a certain Adams, Henry. He never reached the degree of aesthetic detachment since attained. What concerns him is the spirit of the artist, together with the spirit of national or civic.

Venice, Siena, Florence Humanism is the note of all his later thought and of his influence upon his pupils. It has. These all attend to one or another phase of the cleavage between man's way and nature's way a dualism which, whether it cut between man and external nature, or between the "natural man" and the "spiritual man" within; whether it emphasize the "inner check" in any of its.

A larger body of hymns has survived in the traditions of public worship and through the conserving influence of the hymnals. A common religious feeling makes the appeal for the religious lyric; the corresponding motive for secular song is a wave of community enthusiasm and patriotic zeal seldom becomes vocal except in times of actual or imminent national danger.

A brief account of this double theme must be limited to the interpretation of established facts about songs that are sung, and must omit all purely literary lyrics and where the facts as to origins of texts and melodies are in debate, the apparently best findings must be given without much argument. Considered as expressions of popular feeling, patriotic songs ;. Corresponding points arise with reference to the words in particular whether they were inspired by some occasion, or written on request; the circumstances in which they were produced when and how they achieved national favour; and how far they have held it.

The answers to these questions do not supply the material for any compact formula; they prove rather that the ages do not esting the question of a previous ;. Yankee Doodle, for example, is full of surprises, inconsistencies, paradoxes in its career. It is not really a song, but it is a band tune which no existing adult audience has ever sung together. The single stanza known to everyone is not a part of the Revolutionary War ballad, but belongs to an earlier period in. As early as years before the familiar quatrain was current in England, and by the tune was familiar enough in America to be cited it.

The Force of Credulity. In derision of the foolish Yankee there soon began to multiply variants, most of which have come down by hearsay, and are very vague as to date but one was a broadside and attests in the title to its currency before April, The text of The Yankee's Return from Camp the famous but forgotten version is attributed to Edward Bangs, a Harvard student, and was written in or Tory derision did not cease with its appearance, and between the accumulating stanzas in rejoinder and those in supplement gave groimd for Some the speech of "Jonathan' in Tyler's The Contrast of 1 other time, when you and I are better acquainted, I'll sing the whole of it no, no, that's a fib I can't sing but a hundred and ninety verses; our Tabitha at home can sing it all.

The story of Hail Columbia is an almost complete contrast with that of Yankee Doodle, the chief point in common being that the music preceded the words. The President's March, probably composed by Philip Phile, a Philadelphia violinist, was popular in within a year of its production. In an actor, Gilbert Fox, applied to Joseph Hopkinson, accomplished son of the talented Francis, for a patriotic song adapted to The President's March, to be sung by Fox at a personal benefit performance, for which the prospects of a good house were discouraging.

Hopkinson wrote in behalf of a unified country at a moment when, according to Freneau's The Rival Suitors jor America, party claims were creating a dangerous rift through conflicting sympathies with France and England.

Hail Columbia, as introduced by Fox, was a favourite from the start. It was encored a dozen times. It was repeated and on "circus nights. We owe The Star Spangled Banner to the existence of a longpopular melody and to the inspiration of a thrilling event the British attack on Fort McHenry, 13 April, 18 Words and music of To Anacreon in Heaven, constitutional song of the Anacreontic Society in London, were published in They became so beloved of all convivial souls that the words with or without the music were reprinted in twenty -one known magazines and song collections in England between and , and the melody with the original or adapted words was printed no less than thirty times in America between and 1 8 For this tune, in the thrill of the moment of discovery that "the flag was still there," Francis Scott Key began his version of the song "in the dawn's early light," sketched out the remainder on the way to land, copied it on arrival at his Baltimore hotel, and saw it in circulation as a broadside on the next day.

At the outset it met with only moderate popularity, being omitted, as a universal favourite never could have been, from many important song books during the next twenty years. Not until the Civil War was it at other theatres,. George Tucker's attempt to requisition it. Here are three types, the common factor being that the music always provided the pattern for the words.

Yankee Doodle was a sort of ballad, loaded on a music vehicle which has rolled through the decades without its burden. Hail Columbia, written for a march tune, was made public in propitious circumstances and achieved an immediate vogue, but is seldom sung today except to fill out a program. The Star Spangled Banner, set to an old convivial song, with a range that demands the exhilaration of the cup, has been granted long life on acfor the Confederacy in.

America, the fourth permanently national song, casually written in by the youthful S. Smith, was set to an English tune of ninety years' standing encountered in a German song book lent him by Lowell Mason. This, therefore, though simple and popular, was no more inassault. In recognition of these facts an attempt was made in to elicit.

In the meanwhile general consent was being given to a song and to a hymn which are more and more popular with the lapse of time. The original Dixie was composed on forty-eight hours' notice by Dan D.

Emmett in September, He was then under contract with Bryant's Minstrels, New York, as musician and composer of "negro melodies' and plantation walk-arounds. Sung late in i and early. Pike's "Southrons, hear your country call you," a stirring. Fanny J. Crosby's attempt to regain the tune for the North with her "On ye patriots to the battle" was wholly unsuccessful; the other Southern variants died away; Pike's version is now a literary memory; but Emmett's original words and music still bring people to their feet as no other song in America does.

The melody for The Battle Hymn oj the Republic has had lyric itself,. With the organization of the 1 2th Massachusetts Infantry in two Maine men quite the. Canaan's happy shore? When these words became the characteristic song of the regiment, the officers tried in vain to have the words applied to Ellsworth, the first Northern commissioned officer who had fallen in the War. Inevitably many new versions were composed on John Brown of Ossawatomie by H.

Brownell, Edna Dean Proctor, Charles Sprague Hall, and anonymous writers; and from these developed variants beyond recall. The hymn had become a war ballad of widest popularity; but the ballad was to be rehabilitated as a hymn again.

This occurred when Julia Ward Howe, one of a party to visit the Army of the Potomac in December, , was urged by James Freeman Clarke to Her attempt was dignify the chant with adequate words. Fields and T. The marked differences between these three lyrics show how vital will. The eleven syllables of lies a-mouldering in the grave," with. The iambic heptameters of Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord" rise to the elevation of a religious processional.

From the Civil War period the lapse of time and popular consent have elected to preserve a few other melodies, and incidentally the words attached to them, unless these have been displaced by later versions.

George F. Randall's Maryland, of the successful setting of words to a favourite melody this time the German Tannenbaum.