As You Like It by William Shakespeare. No cover available. Download Plain Text UTF-8, //mmoonneeyy.info, kB. More Files. I have no fear of the text because I've wallowed in it for years, and I have some wonderful The Forest of Arden plays an important role in As You Like It and. As You Like It, like Twelfth Night and A Midsummer Night's Dream, is one of . Touchstone has engaged a vicar, Sir Oliver Mar-text, to wed him and Audrey in.
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for your love, I would be loath to foil him, as I must, for my own honour, if he come in: therefore, out of my love to you, I came hither to acquaint you withal, that. This text was downloaded from mmoonneeyy.info, where you can also .. O, a god wish vpon you: you will trie in time in [Page ]As you like it. Download AS YOU LIKE IT free in PDF & EPUB format. Download William Shakespeare.'s AS YOU LIKE IT for your kindle, tablet, IPAD, PC or.
Rosalind teaches Orlando not only the rules of love and its nature. The more tyrannical she becomes. The fact that he created both Jaques and Touchstone out of whole cloth. She is master-mistress of the situation. With Touchstone. The image of three de Boys sons reestablishes the proper generational sequence.
Oliver, searching for Orlando, reforms after Orlando saves his life. Duke Frederick restores the dukedom to Duke Senior, who leaves the forest with his followers.
Folger Shakespeare Library http: From the Director of the Folger Shakespeare Library. Characters in the Play.
Orlando , youngest son of Sir Rowland de Boys. Second Brother , brother to Orlando and Oliver, named Jaques. Adam , servant to Oliver and friend to Orlando. Rosalind , daughter to Duke Senior. Duke Frederick , the usurping duke. First Lord. Duke Senior , the exiled duke, brother to Duke Frederick. Lords attending Duke Senior in exile. First Page. Corin , a shepherd. Silvius , a young shepherd in love. William , a country youth in love with Audrey. Sir Oliver Martext , a parish priest. Hymen , god of marriage.
I will be more jealous of thee than a Barbary cock-pigeon over his hen. Julia and Viola. It is no wonder the gaiety of this twinned character is infectious. What would you say to me now. But it cannot be sounded. She provokes preposterously. I will weep for nothing. But what is sexual solidarity to her is to her chameleon cousin sexual solipsism and she will have none of it.
And if mine eyes can wound.. Now counterfeit to swound. Lie not. Or if thou canst not.
And even that is not all. Should be called tyrants. Life itself is validated. That eyes. Now I do frown on thee with all my heart. Free to fantasize. I think she means to tangle my eyes too! Your bugle eyeballs. You foolish shepherd. Phebe is. You are a thousand times a properer man Than she a woman. But it is also not strictly accurate. Like foggy south. Sell when you can. She has merely suggested to Orlando that they meet again. Existence in Arden 33 Rosalind. And thank heaven.
For I must tell you friendly in your ear. What it leaves out is the fun.. And out of you she sees her self more proper Than any of her lineaments can show her. Berry accounts. If she is still Ganymede in the epilogue. Phebe And I for Ganymede. Rosalind And I for no woman.
Orlando And I for Rosalind. A remedy for deadlock. She is thus drawing the audience. The arrival of Oliver. The exhaustion of the comic device is neatly dramatized by the emotional collapse of Rosalind at the sight of the bloodied handkerchief. But if she is dressed as Rosalind. This is the ironic voice which ends the play with the classic plea for applause in the epilogue. Ganymede has in his face that which Phebe would feign call master.
A protuberance is a protuberance. But he is by nature a solitary and continues his travels. All is immaterially interchangeable: But what though? As horns are odious. Wickedness has burst. Jaques is unassimilated. But not all Jacks have their Jills.
There is also unaccommodated William at the marriage feast. Jaques gives him two months V. I submit. It is said.. Poor men alone? To Touchstone. Julia and Hippolyta. In this matter she can give as good as she gets. At the end of As You Like It dukes are restored to their dukedoms.
Existence in Arden 35 power. Harold Jenkins. XXI XLIX Shakespeare is not done with the wayward and unruly erotic passions. Sypher continues. He is too Ecclesiastes-wise. Nor will he be. He is not a merry fool. Shakespeare Studies. But his romantic comedy treatment of them does come to an end with his next play Twelfth Night. Touchstone is a professional jester. They have left Theseus far behind. Shakespeare Quarterly. Maura Slattery Kuhn. Chicago University Press.
Pastoral London: Peter V. Towards a Psychology of Being New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Wylie Sypher. Richard Levin. Abraham H. Existence in Arden 37 5.
University of California Press. Shakespearean Comedy London: The transmission of paternal heritage. The father—son motif. Her talking circles around Orlando seems sufficient proof of her complete triumph. In the earlier play. The exiles in the forest can indulge in the pleasures of melancholy because the play can amply satisfy the need for true versions of debased human relationship: We relish the platitude of this general rule in order to appreciate the magic of the exceptions.
Orlando is educated twice: My point is not that As You Like It is a history play in disguise or that there are no differences between genres. Concentration on Rosalind to the neglect of other issues distorts the overall design of As You Like It.
Male friendship. Orlando is never made to confront a paternal fault. The masques of the Muscovites and of the Nine Worthies are farcical artistic performances that precipitate discord. But the question still remains: And an exclusive focus on Rosalind prevents our asking it. Unlike Henry V.
But even Jaques generously acknowledges the validity of love when he gives his blessing to Orlando. Berowne comments explicitly on the absence of marriage and closure.
As You Like It creates a context in which the efficaciousness of art is affirmed rather than denied. Unpleasing to a married ear! I bar confusion. The songs act as a conspicuously inadequate substitute for the consummation that has failed to occur among the main characters.
Rosalind has explored the limits of the magic that her male. Rosalind has brought Hymen. I have. That reason wonder may diminish How thus we met. The character of Rosalind. It recapitulates but does not relieve the humiliation of men as helpless victims of female caprice. In presenting Rosalind undisguised. Whiles a wedlock-hymn we sing.
This gratifying happy ending is convincing.
Feed yourselves with questioning. The alternative presented by the songs twits the anxiety it ostensibly seeks to mitigate by invoking the larger perspective of the natural cycle: The cuckoo then on every tree Mocks married men.
Nor do the companion songs of the cuckoo and the owl dispel the awkward atmosphere. The static quality of this relationship leaves too little room for interplay between the worlds and leads directly to the stalemate of the conclusion.
While useful. From this perspective. As You Like It dramatically expands the contrast and the possibilities for interaction between the two worlds of court and forest.
Hence it becomes imperative to look at the plays from the perspective of sexual politics. Like Prospero. The sharply differentiated landscapes unfold in sequence.
How do we account for the difference between the two endings? How is the resolution of As You Like It achieved? The play sets up a contrast between two worlds: Falling in love is experienced as incapacitation: My better parts Are all thrown down.
There is. Again like the four lords. Her response to Phebe and Silvius is an attack on sonnet convention that implicitly involves a self-education for Rosalind. Like them. And I to live and die her slave. Heaven would that she these gifts should have. In upbraiding the two for their enactment of the stereotype of female scorn and male abasement. The encounter between Rosalind and Jaques at the beginning of act 4. The idea of the male disguise originates as a strategy for avoiding the normal vulnerability to male force: Before entering the forest of Arden.
Observing this dynamic at work in another relation alerts her to the potential Phebe in herself. She is more impressive because more complex and more humane. This traditional image has been resent all along. It is clear to the audience. Rosalind does have access to both male and female attributes.
Her own insistence on the metaphor of exterior male and interior female keeps the categories distinct and separable.
Rosalind must reveal herself directly to Orlando. This loss of control signals that Rosalind can no longer deny her inner feminine self. By virtue of the costume. As the disguise begins to break down before its official removal. Rosalind is shown working out in advance the terms of her return. Though it gives her freedom of action and empowers her to take the initiative with Orlando.
The liberation that Rosalind experiences in the forest has built into it the conservative countermovement by which. Yet the costume is problematic. Still protected by her disguise yet allowing herself to come closer to the decisive moment. In order to love. Neither Rosalind nor the play questions the conventional categories of masculine and feminine. But in giving up the disguise. Her humor has the effect of exorcising and renouncing her potential weapon. The expected negative meaning of horns as the sign of a cuckold is transformed into a positive image of phallic potency that unites men.
She accedes to the process by which. Unlike Cordelia. To each of the two men in her life she declares: Jaques replaces his earlier lament 2.
Her previous wit notwithstanding. Her exuberance and control collapse in fears of his betrayal: She is the architect of a resolution that phases out the control she has wielded and prepares the way for the patriarchal status quo.
Rosalind submits not only to two individual men but also to the patriarchal society that they embody. Yet Rosalind is not really in charge here because the potential hostility between the younger and older man has already been negotiated in the forest in act 2. Changing the style of his literary response to deer killing. Patriarchy is not a slogan smuggled in from the twentieth century and imposed on the play but an exact term for the social structure that close reading reveals within the play.
Her casting herself in the role of male possession is all the more charming because she does not have to be forced to adopt it: She is once again consigned to anxious waiting for her tardy man: Orlando makes it clear. Rosalind is aware. The interim is reserved for his other. The forest of Arden includes a strong parental presence: Orlando asserts the paternal bond: The sequence of these projects is an indication of priority.
Both Rosalind and Orlando acknowledge Duke Senior. Although interpretations of As You Like It often stress youthful love. Fraternal spirit is not equivalent to democracy. Upon entering the forest.
Rosalind and Orlando approach the forest in strikingly different ways. In the case of As You Like It. Freed from the constraints of courtly decorum. Unexpectedly finding a benevolent father figure. This transaction concludes the scene: What is thy name. Yet aggression is the epitome of a rigid masculinity that Shakespeare characteristically condemns as too narrow a basis for identity. Orlando is accompanied by Adam.
In act 2. Orlando effects as gracefully as possible a transition from toughness to tenderness: As it turns out. I will either be food for it. Be truly welcome hither. Orlando carries Adam on his back. The men take over the traditional female prerogative of maternal nurturance. DUKE S.. Just as there is an unlimited supply of food in this scene. Love is expressed in terms of food.
Virgilian piety. True is it that we have seen better days. Jaques excepted. We now see that it is the male feast. And you say you will have her. In the end. The male community of act 2. That would I. Responding with a kindness that can be traced back to his meeting with Duke Senior. The power of male pity extends beyond this scene to include the evil Oliver. You will bestow her on Orlando here? DUKE S. Rosalind plays her part by rehearsing the men in their political roles: The motif of eating here creates a negative image that might disturb the comfortable pastoral banquet.
Orlando rescues his brother: You say. In the liberal opening out into the forest of Arden. In an ironic demonstration of the consuming nature of evil. It is Orlando. This selective androgyny demands an ambivalent response: Just as Rosalind gains access to the traditional masculine attributes of strength and control through her costume.
III C. Her possession of the male costume and of the power it symbolizes is only temporary. In completing the de Boys family reunion. In talking about male power in As You Like It. Driven by greed. But Orlando does not have to give up the emotional enlargement he has experienced in the forest. The image of three de Boys sons reestablishes the proper generational sequence. In order to assess the sense of an ending.
The second. There is no relief from the fear that dominant women inspire in a patriarchal sensibility. But in her case paternal power is vigorously represented by Duke Senior and by the line of patriarchal authority established when Senior makes Orlando his heir. But of course this patriarchal tyranny is a caricature and therefore harmless. To describe it. Her essential power remains intact. Festive celebration is now possible because a dependable.
In contrast to good men. As You Like It achieves marital closure not by eliminating male ties but rather by strengthening them. Unlike Rosalind. Like the princess. A benevolent patriarchy still requires women to be subordinate.
Oliver and Frederick are exaggerated fairy-tale villains whose hardened characters are unable to withstand the wholesome atmosphere of the forest and instantly dissolve 4. A further twist of logic defuses and reduces the threat of female power: Rosalind is no one to be frightened of since. In the particular case of As You Like It.
The boy-actor convention makes it possible for males to explore the female other I use the term other here in the sense given by Simone de Beauvoir in The Second Sex of woman as the other.
This theatrical dimension reinforces the conservative effect of male androgyny within the play. Vicariously taking on the female role enables male spectators to make an experimental contact with what otherwise might remain unknown. Once the tenor of the metaphor has been attained. Acknowledgment of the feminine within the male is one thing. In revealing the self-sufficient male acting company. Orlando never tries.
Shakespeare allowing himself to have it both ways. Fear of women can be encountered in the relatively safe environment of the theater. The Epilogue is heterosexual in its bringing together of men and women: This explicit breaking of theatrical illusion forces us to reckon with the fact of an all-male cast. O men. In the boy-actor motif. It is as though asserting the priority of relations between men over relations between men and women is not enough. Yet the effect of the play is to separate them by transferring their allegiance to husbands.
Not only are women to be subordinate. The social structure of As You Like It. The Epilogue is. Is he taking an ironic and critical stance toward the patriarchal solution of his characters. Rosalind is of course allowed to devise an escape from the pressure of this undesirable entanglement.
A comparable prohibition is not announced against male friendship. Rosalind and Celia are initially inseparable: Men originally divided are reunited as in the instance of Oliver and Orlando. Celia ceases to be a speaking character at the end of act 4. The two plays are also connected by their treatment of mothers. Shakespeare is here thoroughly engaged and endorses the idealization. The occasional allusions to becoming pregnant 1. Rosalind contributes to this effect because she lacks sexual maturity: This defense against encroachment by the maternal through virtual exclusion of it serves to link As You Like It with Henry V.
We have too easily accepted the formulation that says that Shakespeare in the mature history plays concentrates on masculine development whereas in the mature festive comedies he gives women their due by allowing them to play the central role. Both plays deal with the problem of the mother simply by excluding it. French pursues her thesis that each genre has its own gender to a formulaic.
Barber works too hard to create this festive closure. Princeton University Press. Tragic Men: Stanford University Press. After completing my work on the play. I borrow this phrase from T.
My essay on As You Like It. Social Process and Comic Form. I am heavily indebted to the festive concept of dramatic action. Brown employs this passage in his own celebration of the horn: The Merchant of Venice breaks the stalemate in a different way. Adrienne Rich provides a critique of the conservative use of the concept androgyny and a summary of recent writing on the subject in Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and Institution New York: Carolyn Ruth Swift Lenz. See Clara Park. Marriage is achieved by disrupting the bond between Antonio and Bassanio.
In this regard The Merchant of Venice offers a useful contrast. It allows them to retain their integrity—an alternative preferable to capitulation. Stratford-Upon-Avon Studies I do not mean to suggest that this is a positive ending in the sense of being the best possible outcome. In particular. Gayle Greene. University of Illinois Press. Norman O. The source of uneasiness in The Merchant of Venice. Columbia University Press. Marital bonds. Festive Comedy. Feminist Criticism of Shakespeare.
As You Like It affirms marriage by strengthening male bonds and eliminating female bonds. Part of the reason they are problem plays is the unresolved ambivalence about the sexuality evidenced in the pregnancies of Helena and Juliet. However necessary procreation is acknowledged to be in theory. Both plays. Criterion Books. Geburtstag von Ludwig Borinski Heidelberg: Festschrift zum The existence of a need to avoid mothers can be demonstrated by two subsequent plays.
For an example of this contrast between comedies and histories.
She is perfectly safe. In short. Indeed Celia makes a suggestion along these lines. Why then does she do so? From Comedy from Shakespeare to Sheridan. There is in fact very little risk to her should she do so. Clearly there are no outlaws in the forest. There would of course be one unfortunate repercussion. All these women must retain their disguises because of exigencies of the plot. Dressed as a boy. Shipwrecked in Illyria. Here the disguise is even more central to the plot than in Two Gentlemen.
Like Julia she is then trapped in her disguise when she falls in love with the man she serves and is sent by him to plead his love to Olivia. Her costume is essential to the working out of the plot. Viola initially wishes to gain employment with the Countess Olivia in her own shape as a woman.
At this point Julia swoons or pretends to swoon. And Imogen. What if she were to step forward in act 3. She initially disguises herself for the same reason Rosalind gives: Portia is not trapped in her role as the wise young judge Balthasar. The same is true in Twelfth Night. Many reasons have been advanced for the continued existence of Ganymede after Orlando comes on the scene. What she does need. I do not wish to quarrel with these sensible observations.
Kittredge quotes one Lady Martin. But beyond that. Once Rosalind is disguised as a man. He is the one. Clara Claiborne Park. Can Shakespeare be keeping Rosalind in disguise merely to prolong his play. Rosalind does not have to learn much. As the lessons she gives to Orlando immediately testify. The Education of Orlando 61 come to an end in the middle of the third act as would have occurred if Cordelia had answered at once when Lear asked her how much she loved him.
Dressed as a man. Her disguise as Ganymede permits her to educate him about himself. I think. Doth it therefore ensue that you should love his son dearly? By this kind of chase. For what Rosalind is teaching is not so much technique as substance. Why should I not? Doth he not deserve well? The two events are psychologically related. The degree to which Orlando is successfully educated.
In act 1. I believe. I should hate him. It is for Orlando. The whole scene is beautifully modulated. Banishment is a rite of passage here. The following scene. Although he is the youngest son. Deception is already in her mind. What is her motivation for doing so? In seeking to answer this question. Since she is living under the foster care of her jealous and unloving uncle.
When she learns that it is indeed Orlando who has written these poems in her praise. If he does not know who she is. His tyrannical older brother. Rosalind asks Celia a crucial question: Carrying old Adam on his shoulders like Aeneas bearing his father Anchises. And get you from our court.
Her love. With his eyes full of anger. Meanwhile Orlando. She has presented him with a chain. Orlando enters the forest where. His mock-Petrarchan poetry. Both are obsessed with their own feelings. For one thing. Rosalind seems to sense this when. Like Phebe. Orlando successfully teases Jaques with the old joke of the fool in the brook.
For another thing. He does this initially through the medium of his love poems. Orlando has no reason to expect that Rosalind will ever see or hear of them. Orlando needs time— time to grow from an infatuated youth to a man who knows the real nature of love. Time is. Pretending she does not know who he is. He will now be required to prove his love by acts of constancy and by the quick use of his wits—very different from the self-glorifying practice of posting love poems for all to see.
But both of these men are distracted by important events taking place concurrently. Dialogue and interplay have already begun to replace the sterile and stereotypical intercourse between a man and his pen. Consider some of the peculiarities of diction in the following exchange: Where dwell you. By not revealing her true identity Rosalind gives him that time. Bassanio is overwhelmed with gratitude by the salvation of Antonio. Orlando is no longer in command of the love theme—if.
With this shepherdess. This is particularly striking because of the nature of the dialogue that takes place between them. She thus usurps and desentimentalizes the topic of love that Orlando has elaborately established as his own. Are you native of this place?
He is now gazing into that face and does not recognize it. This part of the scene should. For Orlando as well as for the audience these words are clues to her real identity.
As You Like It is particularly playful in this regard. Since the Elizabethan actor playing Rosalind would of course have been a boy. As the cony that you see dwell where she is kindled. But the proliferation of. But the word pretty in Shakespeare is almost always used to describe either women or children. But like those women. I would I could make thee believe I love. Yet he is so determined to be lovesick that he does not recognize the object of his love. Me believe it? You may as soon make her that you love believe it.
Under the guise of Ganymede. Rosalind teaches Orlando not only the rules of love and its nature. For the education of Orlando. Fair youth. Our amazement is the more because all of this wooing takes place offstage. Compared with the protracted courtship of Orlando and Rosalind.
We learn that Duke Frederick. Readers of the play are occasionally as nonplussed as Orlando by the rapidity with which Oliver and Celia fall in love. Imagination and play. Like Oliver he offers to abdicate his lands and position in favor of the brother he had formerly sought to kill. At this point Jaques decides to join him.
In the language of education we have been using. And as if he has said the magic words—as indeed he has—Rosalind now promises to produce his true beloved. And will you persever to enjoy her? But Rosalind has a ready reply. Orlando readily accepts this explanation.
His declaration. Or so it seems. The lessons. Learning to love his brother. Once again he hovers on the brink of discovery. Orlando is vouchsafed. But how much has Orlando really learned? Throughout the play Rosalind has offered clues to her real identity. As we have seen. Much later in the play. If you do love Rosalind so near the heart as your gesture cries it out. My lord. Yet Orlando. For notice what he has done.
Obscured in the circle of the forest. Receiving the appropriate assurances. Whom he reports to be a great magician. By my life. We are very close to the truth here.
I know into what straits of fortune she is driven. The Education of Orlando 71 from the age of three. Erik Erikson. And plainly the magician with whom Rosalind has conversed from the voluble age of three is no one but Rosalind herself. As she herself remarks. George Lyman Kittredge Boston: Ginn and Co.
Hand in hand with Orlando she danced in celebration of her wedding. Coming of Age in Shakespeare London: My students. Houghton Mifflin. Introduction to As You Like It. But she returns. Youth and Crisis New York: Anne Barton. Marjorie Garber. Feminist Criticism of Shakespeare Urbana: Her reappearance underscores the degree to which she has directed events in Arden from her first encounter with Orlando to the successful performance of four marriages.
Blakemore Evans et. References are to The Riverside Shakespeare. Shakespearian Comedy If he is not entirely her equal. This inference makes perfect sense. Individuals who desire the same thing are united by something so powerful that. If imitation also plays a role in desire. From A Theater of Envy: William Shakespeare. The perfect continuity between concord and discord is as crucial to Shakespeare as it was to the tragic poets of Greece. Imitation does not merely draw people together.
I suspect that Shakespeare wrote this scene just after discovering mimetic desire. In the still youthful Rape of Lucrece. He was so taken with it. Our supposedly insatiable appetite for the forbidden stops short of envy. Who knows if the small measure of acceptance that mimetic desire has won in academic circles is not due. Envy covets the superior being that neither the someone nor something alone. In no time at all. That is why envy is the hardest sin to acknowledge.
Shakespeare became sophisticated. Shakespeare can be as explicit as some of us are about mimetic desire. Primitive cultures fear and repress envy so much that they have no word for it. As for Shakespeare. If we apply this yardstick to envy as well as to what psychoanalysis designates as repressed. I have chosen the traditional word for the title of this study.