Purchase Innovations in Food Packaging - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. DRM-free (EPub, PDF, Mobi). × DRM-Free Easy - Download and start reading. techniques. The novel food packaging techniques, viz. active packaging, intelligent packaging and influence on consumer's health have been the major innovations in the field of packaging technol- ogy. pdf> (Accessed Sept 24). The requirements towards packaging and articles intended to come into contact with food are systematically growing. Due to the growing.
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Current innovations of food packaging technology are geared to ensuring better protection, more efficient quality preservation, and enhanced safety. In addition. PDF | The requirements towards packaging and articles intended to come into contact with food are systematically growing. Due to the growing consumer. Innovation in food packaging: towards more sustainability ánd functionality. Prof. Dr. ir. Peter Ragaert. Technological advisor - Pack4Food. Docent food.
The article has the characteristics of a review, whereas the main research method applied is literature query. The most common factors that encourage businesses to develop new packaging by introducing packaging innovation or modifying the existing packaging solution are [ 47 ]:. This act regulates issues relating to the security of application of the materials used in active packaging and defines the requirements for marketing of these materials. Another system for elimination of ethylene is impregnation of zeolite clay with an ethylene absorber with suitable additives to enable absorption of other aromatic hydrocarbons. Moreover, compared to organic of antimicrobial substances, it shows good resistance to high temperature. Allows the consumer to make a rational and informed choice, thus increasing the trust in the product.
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Institutional Subscription. Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. Covers four major food packaging topics: Theories in food packaging Active packaging Modified atmosphere packaging Edible films and coatings. It is an extension of the traditional packaging functions such as providing protection, comfort of use, and longer shelf life and storage periods. The aim of the study is to systematize the knowledge and identify the research trends concerning the active packaging o food products.
The article has the characteristics of a review, whereas the main research method applied is literature query. The article presents the current state of the scientific discussion on the principles and mechanisms of active packaging, indicating the process of dynamic improvement of production technology of this innovative packaging solution.
According to forecasts of experts, the emerging generations of active packaging are the future of food packaging [ 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ]. Although the active packaging has a small share in the value of the sales of all packaging, but there are indications for a rapid growth of their sales in subsequent years.
The interest in these solutions is reflected in the number of patent applications and granted patents [ 8 ]. These types of solutions were introduced in Japan and in the USA first, and now, they can be seen in Europe.
Probably, the later introduction of these systems on the European market results from existing legal regulations, which were much more restrictive in Europe [ 1 , 16 ]. Intensification of interest in active and intelligent packaging in Europe is also reflected in the growing number of research projects relating to their development [ 12 ]. Active packaging is a solution, in which the packaging, the product, and the environment interact.
In contrast to the traditional packaging materials, active packaging causes extending the shelf life of food and preserving its higher quality during reactions with the internal atmosphere and the product [ 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 ].
Therefore, active packaging systems should be considered an innovative way in the field of food packaging [ 23 , 24 ]. They interact with the packed product, change the conditions of the packed food, and control its quality at the same time.
Active packaging represents a large and diverse group in terms of both its purpose and solutions applied. The use of proper active packing extends the shelf life of products through its impact on processes emerging in food [ 25 ]:.
The atmosphere inside packaging can be actively controlled by substances which absorb scavengers or release emitters gases or steam. Scavengers are designed to remove undesired components from the environment inside packaging. There is no direct migration between a scavenger and a product but only improvement of the conditions inside packaging, which prolongs a shelf life of the product.
Depending on the application, it may be associated with the absorption of oxygen, moisture, ethylene, or carbon dioxide. It is in order to achieve specific effects that such substances as zeolite, cellulose, activated carbon, silica gel, iron ions, ascorbic acid, potassium permanganate, and calcium hydroxide are applied [ 26 ]. The second group of packaging consists of emitters [ 26 ]. The principle of operation of emitters is based on releasing desired substances that have a positive impact on food into the packaging environment.
Such packaging contains and produces compounds capable to get inside the packaging and inhibit adverse processes. They are intended to guarantee stable conditions during storage and should ensure extension of the shelf life. It is by means of emitters that humidity inside packaging vegetable packaging can be controlled, the growth of harmful microorganisms emitters of CO 2 , SO 2 , and ethanol can be inhibited, and bacterial spoilage can be prevented antibacterials [ 25 ].
Emitters can be fragrant substances, food additives, food ingredients, humidity regulators, and biological active substances, which prevent growth of microorganisms. The most commonly used antimicrobial substances are ethanol, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide [ 26 ]. Sachets, labels, film, bottle crowns, masterbatch, container suitable for high temperature, film suitable for high temperature. Minimise the effects of oxygen permeation through the packaging material during product shelf life, preserve food product quality, inhibition of unsuitable oxidation unstable pigments and aerobic microorganism growth, prevent oxidative rancidity, controlling enzymatic discoloration, inhibition of oxidation of lipids, development of molds, preventing discoloration.
High-, intermediate-, and low-moisture foods, foods containing lipids, refrigerated and frozen storage foods, microwaveable food products, reduce microbial growth and nutritional loss, improve product quality and shelf life, prevent discoloration and flavour change,.
Decrease microorganism growth and spoilage, reduce the metabolic rate of microbes, preserve food quality, preventing swelling of packaging. Reduce respiration rate, increase shelf life of product, inhibit microbial growth, absorbed by moisture or fat roasted ground coffee, snack foods, nuts, bakery products, dried meat, fresh meats, fish products. Reduce ripening and deterioration, extend shelf life, control of ripening of fruits and vegetables. Control concentration of ethylene, improve quality of food fruits, vegetables and other horticultural products.
Sachets, absorbent pads, absorbent tray, dual-compartment system, microwavable film. Maintain food quality, extend shelf life, reduce microbial growth and degradation of texture, flavour and color. Antibacterial and antifungal sheets, labels and films, silver-based masterbatch, silver-based trays and films, interleavers, antifungal coating. Inhibition of microorganism growth, extend shelf life, reduce post-harvest decay, maintain storage quality. Fresh fruits and vegetables, meat products, cheese, bakery products, maintain food quality, inhibit microorganisms.
To guarantee sustainability of food packaged with the use of innovative technologies, it is highly desirable to maintain the least amount of gas in the free space of packaging.
It is in order to ensure a long-term storage and freshness that minimization of the oxygen presence is essential, which may react with the content of packaging [ 14 ]. Through the use of oxygen scavengers, it is possible to control residual oxygen inside packaging, which prevents further deterioration of the quality of the packed products [ 42 , 43 ]. Easily oxidizable compounds powdered iron, ascorbic acid, unsaturated fatty acids, and unsaturated hydrocarbons , enzymes glucose oxidase and alcohol oxidase or photosensitive dyes are used as oxygen scavengers [ 18 ].
Their application may be very useful, especially if vacuum packaging VP or packaging in modified atmosphere MPA is not possible or proves not to be effective. The response of the most popular oxygen scavengers is based on oxidation of iron compounds [ 6 ]. The substances absorbing oxygen based on iron compounds are placed in sachets permeable to oxygen most often. Due to the high sorption capacity of iron compounds, the oxygen scavengers based on them are the most effective absorbers in the market.
Attempts are being made to embed iron compounds absorbing oxygen in different types of polymers, so that the materials obtained in this way may be in the form of labels glued inside packaging, seals of bottle caps, or be an integral part of packaging.
In addition, introduction of iron compounds to a polymer matrix ensures that they do not have direct contact with packed food product, which guarantees safety of a consumer. The action of ascorbic acid may be supported by alkaline compounds, salts of aluminum and iron, as well as siliceous iron [ 44 ]. Absorbers of this type are currently produced also by other companies under different names, e.
It is in these absorbers that zeolites are covered with iron oxide II with addition of sodium chloride. Under the influence of oxygen and moisture present in packaged products, iron oxide II is oxidized to iron oxide III. Newer, more efficient iron oxygen scavengers are based on metallic iron obtained as a result of electrolytic reduction [ 44 ].
Oxygen scavengers using iron nanoparticles, which react with oxygen even in a moisture-free environment, are a novelty among absorbents based on iron. It is in food industry that ethylene and carbon dioxide absorbers are used beside oxygen scavengers.
The ethylene level control during food storage plays a key role in extending its shelf life. Ethylene is a phytohormone, which initiates and accelerates ripping processes, causes degradation of chlorophyll, and inevitably leads to a deterioration of the visual and organoleptic quality if fresh or minimally processed fruit and vegetables.
Ethylene absorbers are supposed to protect fruit and vegetables sensitive to the hormone [ 14 ]. The most commonly used ethylene absorber is potassium permanganate embedded in silica gel [ 8 ].
Potassium permanganate changes color after ethylene oxidation from purple to brown. Silica gel with an absorber is packaged in sealed sachets permeable to ethylene, excluding the possibility of contact with the product in packaging. Another system for elimination of ethylene is impregnation of zeolite clay with an ethylene absorber with suitable additives to enable absorption of other aromatic hydrocarbons.
Zeolite clay with an ethylene absorber can be embedded in a packaging film increasing emission of ethylene and carbon dioxide into the outside atmosphere. A disadvantage of this solution is reduction of the transparency of the packaging. A very efficient ethylene absorbent is activated carbon with palladium chloride as a catalyst. This absorbent significantly reduces softening of minimally processed bananas and kiwi fruit as well as counteracts chlorophyll degradation in spinach [ 45 ].
Commercial ethylene absorbing systems are sold in the form of separate or integrated with packaging elements. There are following solutions: Systems using potassium permanganate, i. To preserve stability of food products, it is necessary to use systems for absorption and emission of carbon dioxide in active packaging. CO 2 is usually eliminated by placing calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide embedded in silica gel in suitable porous sachets inside packaging [ 45 ].
A very important group of active packaging consists of active emitters [ 26 ]. It is by means of emitters that humidity inside packaging vegetable packaging can be controlled, growth of harmful microorganisms emitters of CO 2 , SO 2 , and ethanol can be inhibited, and bacterial spoilage can be prevented.
It is in the case of these systems that much attention should be paid to safety and migration of compounds to food [ 5 ]. These are the systems emitting carbon dioxide that deserve more attention due to their beneficial antimicrobial effects. This gas penetrates most packaging materials much faster and should be systematically replenished to ensure its appropriate level min. Carbon dioxide emitters are often used with oxygen scavengers. In such systems, the oxygen absorbed by an oxygen scavenger is directly replaced with carbon dioxide.
It is in practice that bifunctional sachets are used for this purpose labels and mats , which contain a CO 2 emitter and an oxygen scavenger, which absorb oxygen and produce the same volume of carbon dioxide. Iron carbonate II and metal halide as a catalyst are used usually in them. The liquids secreted from food are absorbed by mats and react with citric acid and sodium bicarbonate.
This reaction produces carbon dioxide. It consists of a standard perforated tray, under which there is a porous sachet containing sodium bicarbonate and sodium ascorbate [ 8 ]. The largest group of emitters consists of antimicrobial substances for use inside packaging. These substances may be added to packaging in different forms such as [ 5 ]:. Emitters of smell and taste are also an interesting solution.
Sensory changes in food products may result from intentional or unintended reactions between the product and the packaging material and also because of inappropriate material properties important for protecting product quality. Emitters of smell distribute scent masking fragrant substances in packaging.
Besides, the emitted fragrant substances may enhance natural aromas of packaged product, as in the case of fruit and thereby encourage consumers to purchase. Smell emitters are usually substances, which can be used as additives to plastics, including polyethylene and polypropylene, polyamide, polyester, and polyvinyl chloride.
These substances are characterized by high thermal resistance [ 25 ]. To guarantee high quality of food, it is important to control humidity in packaging. Moisture scavengers are an effective tool for monitoring water content in food packaging. The presence of too much water in a packed product causes larger microbiological contamination and shortens product shelf life at the same time, which may also result in resignation from purchasing.
The main task of the humidity control is to reduce the biological activity of water and inhibit growth of bacteria, molds and yeasts. Market applications of humidity controllers are divided into two categories [ 17 ]:.
Relative humidity regulators sachets or labels containing dewatering agents; they are used to control humidity for many types of products including cheese, meat, nuts, and spices. The simplest moisture scavengers are sachets filled with absorbing materials such as: These sachets enable to keep a certain humidity level in packaging which hinders development of mold but does not solve the problem of water loss in the packed product [ 44 ].
The so-called wrappings of the Japanese Chefkin company are much more technically advanced and enable to control relative humidity in packaging. They consist of two layers. The external layer is impermeable to water vapor, while the internal layer is permeable to water vapor; however, it does not allow liquid water to get out. In the space between the layers, there is a glucose solution. At high humidity inside the packaging, the water contained in the food product penetrates the internal layer and is absorbed by the glucose solution.
On the other hand, when the humidity is low, the water vapor from the glucose solution gets inside the packaging. The concentration of the glucose solution determines the level of the relative humidity, at which the migration of water appears [ 8 ].
It is in the field of active packaging that different types of antibacterial packaging are also applied antimicrobial packaging. The mechanism of their action is based on migration of compounds having the ability to inhibit the development of microorganisms on the surface of and then inside a product.
Packaging showing the ability to inhibit growth and development of microorganisms or destroy them directly is used to limit the development of undesirable microflora by adding an antimicrobial component or using a polymer showing such properties [ 20 ]. It makes it possible to extend shelf life of a product and ensures maintenance of its appropriate microbiological condition for a longer time.
The antimicrobial agents may be added to packaging in different forms such as [ 5 ]:. Sachets and insertions containing substances showing antimicrobial properties are the most commonly used form of antimicrobial packaging. The chemical compounds in the sachets get out from the sachets to the surface of the packed product or into the atmosphere inside packaging and prevent the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms.
Another type of an antimicrobial packaging is based on solutions, in which an active component is inside a packaging material. Antimicrobial substances are introduced during production processes of plastic films, e. Antimicrobial packaging may also be produced with the use of components showing natural antimicrobial activity, e.
There have been numerous studies on antimicrobial packaging intended for food carried out in the recent years. New types of plastics and antimicrobial substances have been used.
Most of these solutions enable to control growth of microorganisms and effectively extend shelf life of food products. However, the market offer of such products is still too poor.
Most likely, it is due to the restrictive legislation and sanitary regulations in individual countries as well as little consumer acceptance for such solutions at relatively high cost of their use [ 46 ]. The commercially available antimicrobial packaging systems are based primarily on substances containing silver. This material has been produced by Sinanen Zeomic since It allows to control growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as development of fungi.
Moreover, compared to organic of antimicrobial substances, it shows good resistance to high temperature. Other substances with silver in zeolite work in a similar way: Technological advancement and increasing competition have resulted in the need to modernize and improve the quality of packaging introduced on the market. New trends in this field aim to increase the functionality of packaging. The expectations toward packaging and products intended to come into contact with food are steadily increasing.
The development of new technologies related to materials and products intended to come into contact with food is dictated by both the growing demands of packaging manufacturers, as well as new food products resulting from the needs of consumers. The most common factors that encourage businesses to develop new packaging by introducing packaging innovation or modifying the existing packaging solution are [ 47 ]:.
Food packaging is currently subject to dynamic change, becoming more functional and innovative and containing active substances interacting with the packaged product. A traditional, passive protective function of packaging, understood as a passive barrier to protect food from harmful external factors, has been replaced by an active protection.
The traditional packaging maintain the shape, color, and taste of the product, protecting it from mechanical, microbiological, physical, and chemical impurities, and preventing the loss of the product ingredients, or the entering of undesirable substances from outside. They also advertise the product as a result of a suitable selection of marketing values of the packaging, such as shape, color, and typography.
The traditional packaging is there to protect food and preserve its durability as long as possible, while minimizing the interaction between the packaging and the product.
Active packaging, meanwhile, deliberately uses the interaction existing between the product and the packaging or the environment produced by that product. Active packaging complements the traditional packaging with new features that make it possible to optimize the conditions inside the packaging of a food product, thus significantly extending its durability. It is expected that food manufacturers will increasingly reach for active packaging so as to be able to better protect food and increase the attractiveness of their products on the one hand, and to provide a greater sense of security to their customers on the other hand [ 44 ].
In addition to protecting the very product, active packaging plays an additional role of protection against external influences. Its main functional principle is interacting with the packaged product. The concept of active packaging is based on changing the conditions inside the package, and thus to extend the life of the products.
Interaction between the product and the packaging is very important and prolongs the storage period or improves the sensory properties of the product. In this type of packaging, two methods for introducing active agents are used—they are placed in small bags in the packaging or directly into the packaging material. The selection of the right material and form of packaging for a particular food product depends on many factors.
The most important among them are directly related to the physicochemical properties of the packaged item, including, e.