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full Oxford English Dictionary, but also, from December , the. Historical Thesaurus of the OED, and new ways to explore the English language. Looking up the entry for pollution in the Oxford Collocations of a good monolingual learner's dictionary (such as the Oxford Advanced Learner's . "The full range of collocation', as well as implying collocations of different strengths. Is there a downloadable PDF of any English dictionary (full)? . When you buy hard copies of dictionaries (Oxford, Cambridge etc.,) they usually give a free CD.

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In all, the Project team succeeded However, in , Robert Burchfield was appointed in accomplishing around 85 per cent of its work by Editor for a new Supplement that would replace the software, but the remaining 15 per cent required the volume and include much new information on critical eye of the editors. Gee, Esq. Offline English Dictionary. A hundred and literature of the language it professes to illustrate. This left the text with an of the grammar were run repeatedly until the closest estimated residual error-rate of only in , possible approximation was achieved. In both distinguish the slips belonging to the two periods of periods of collecting there were a number who were collecting. The first for the task that OUP contemplated.

The user platform associated with this Oxford Dictionary of English is highly intuitive and no previous experience is required. It is also possible to place words within the context of a sentence in order to better appreciate their meaning. This application is available for smartphones and personal computers. Featuring autocomplete search to help you find words quickly by seeing search predictions that might be similar to the search terms you're typing.

The search also allows various search options as:. This edition has been completely revised and updated to include the very latest vocabulary, with over , words, phrases, and meanings derived from the latest research from the Oxford English Corpus.

It provides the most complete and accurate picture of the English language today. The dictionary features 75, audio pronunciations of both common and rare words, dubbed in both British and American voice versions, including words with controversial or variant pronunciations. What do you think about Oxford Dictionary of English?

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Learn more. H — ; In returning to me his last batch, Mr. Jacob mentioned E —; to me that the division of the meanings of the verb Set, F — ; and the attempt to put them in satisfactory order, had G — In examining his results, In all this work the part played by the assistants with 51 senses of the simple verb, and 83 of phrases like who formed the staff of each editor was of the set-out, set-off, set-down,— divisions in all—I do greatest importance.

While considerable training not wonder at the time. I suspect that the Editor will have and experience are required by every one, however to give 40 more to it, for the language seems not to well qualified, it is also true that the real dictionary contain a more perplexing word than Set, which occupies worker is born and not made, and that no 15!

When set finally came to be done, more than thirty When the Dictionary had reached the stage of the years later, it took nearer 40 days than 40 hours to first proof regularly supplied in sets of eight digest the mass of examples which had accumulated columns , it was found to be of much value to send by that time; the word occupies a column more than these to various readers deeply interested in the 18 pages of the Dictionary, and extends to main work, to receive the benefit of their criticisms, divisions, the last of which set up has so many suggestions, and additions.

In this way many subdivisions that it exhausts the alphabet and improvements were made, errors and misprints repeats the letters down to rr. Other words like get, eliminated, and the history of words and senses give, go, put, take, may not rival this, but each of more fully illustrated.

In the latter respect the them required a vast amount of preliminary labour contributions of Dr Fitzedward Hall were of special on the part of some assistant, which was of the value by reason of his own collection of material. When a staff Henry Hucks Gibbs Lord Aldenham , who also in had all these elements propejrly represented and other ways gave valuable help and encouragement distributed in it, and certain preliminaries to the in the early stages of the work; of Miss Edith work on each letter such as the copying of Thompson of Bath, Canon Fowler of Durham, and glossaries, concordances, and indexes had been Mr A.

Caland of Wageningen in Holland, who not fully carried out, steady progress could be made, only supplied many fresh quotations, but as a and was made to an extent which seemed foreign student of English frequently noticed points marvellous to foreign scholars acquainted with the which did not so readily strike the native eye.

V For the obtaining of full or accurate information! Although two editors and their staffs had been on special points, it was frequently necessary to working separately from , it was still considered apply to outside authorities of the most varied kind.

With this in view, William Alexander many scholars and men of science'. How many these Craigie, then a lecturer at the University of St were may be seen at large in the original prefaces to Andrews, was invited to Oxford in the summer of the various letters, but it should also be noted that , and after assisting Dr Bradley with the letter there were many in those lists who would not have G, and Dr Murray with I and K, began separate claimed to belong to either of these learned classes, editing with Q in From that date two sections but who could and did supply the information of the Dictionary had their home in the Old wanted with a clearness and fullness which made Ashmolean Building in Broad Street, which had the editor's task easy, and gave him confidence in been left vacant by the removal of the Museum the correctness of his statements.

If various errors to some years before. To these a third was added in be found in standard works are not repeated in the , when Charles Talbut Onions, who had at Dr Dictionary, it is frequently because someone with a Murray's invitation joined the staff in , and had practical knowledge of the subject had been between and prepared special portions of 16!

Unfortunately it was not long before various events 1. I, J, K , O — , P — began to mar these prospects, and bring unwelcome , T — ; delays. The outbreak of the Great War soon began to 2. L , M — , S-Sh — reduce the staffs by withdrawing from them their , St — , W-Wh — ; younger members, and in time even some of those 3. Q — , R-Re — , N — more mature in years.

The loss of these trained , Re-Ry — , Si-Sq — workers for three or four years was naturally a , V — , U — , Wo- serious handicap for those that remained. The next Wy — ; severe blow was the death of Sir James Murray he 4. The total number of pages in the first edition Dictionary and thirty-three during which he had was 15,; of these no less than 7,, or nearly half supplied copy to the printer without intermission. The transference of his staff to the Old Ashmolean,!

The early volumes of the Dictionary were as a or to quarters near it, helped greatly to strengthen rule published in parts of pages at a price of the three remaining sections, but there was no twelve shillings and sixpence each, with three possibility of compensating for the loss that the smaller sections introduced to make the divisions work had sustained.

If his wish had been fulfilled to coincide with the end of the letters B, C, and E. The the extent of seeing his eightieth birthday in , it size of these parts necessarily involved a would not have coincided with the end of the considerable time in the preparation of each, and a Dictionary, as he had hoped, but those two years corresponding interval between the dates of would have brought the completion of the work publication.

Towards the end of it was decided appreciably nearer in spite of the difficulties of the that a shortening of these intervals was desirable, time. The Letters, A, B, C, and ' of this great editors were not continuously engaged on it nor undertaking having been already published, the able to give their whole time to it , until the death of Delegates of the Clarendon Press have been urged Dr Bradley on 23 May removed another of its from many quarters to consider the more frequent mainstays.

By that time it was clearly too late to publication of the subsequent portions of the work, think of finding another editor; the best that could in smaller instalments, as each is completed by the be done was to make full use of the more Editors, so as to supply students of the English experienced assistants in the preparation of special Language and Literature more promptly with the sections of the letters that still remained.

By this results of the latest researches. In response to this demand, the Delegates have removal to the University of Chicago in , to take arranged for the punctual issue of the letters D and part with Dr Onions in the editing of W, and so F in Quarterly Sections. The new issue will begin enable the work to be finished in the beginning of with the simultaneous publication of the opening , almost exactly seventy years from the date on part of each letter on November 15, and further which the Philological Society had decided to make instalments of the Editors' work will be regularly 'a completely new English Dictionary'.

The who were just beginning to take up the task which Delegates have they had already carried on so long. Only a small no reason to fear any interruption in the continuous number of the company which met that evening publication of the Dictionary on this plan.

This expectation was realized, and quarterly In the same year the Dictionary was by sections of 64 pages, or double sections of permission dedicated to Her Majesty Queen occasionally even a triple section of were Victoria, as intimated on a special page inserted in steadily issued for the next twenty years, until the the part for January For the convenience of those who University Press.

In that year, however, a preferred them, however, the larger twelve-and- contribution was made sixpenny parts were still issued whenever a towards the cost of the sixth volume, which was sufficient number of consecutive single or double also recorded on a separate page in these words: At the time this change was made, a new name for This sixth volume is a memorial of the munificence of the Dictionary was also introduced, though no the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, who have change was made on the title-page.

On the cover of generously contributed five thousand pounds towards its the section containing Deceit to Deject, published on production. The new Majesty King George, and to Calvin Coolidge, name, being more distinctive than the old, steadily President of the United States, as the highest came more and more into use, and the abbreviation representatives of the two great English-speaking OED tended to supplant NED, although the latter nations.

Popularly the work contributors and workers again had an opportunity was often referred to as Murray's, and the of meeting, and of hearing the Prime Minister, Mr Philological Society by a natural tradition has Stanley Baldwin, commend the results of their continued to call it 'the Society's Dictionary'.

During the progress of the work academic VI honours were from time to time conferred upon the! During all these years of work, in addition to the editors by various universities, and at its completion growing appreciation which it steadily received, the the University of Oxford marked the occasion by progress of the Dictionary was diversified by a few conferring the honorary degree of D. On 12 October , a large surviving editors, the Secretary to the Delegates of number of the readers, sub-editors, assistants, and the Press, the Publisher to the University, and the other helpers were enabled to meet each other at Printer to the University.

Oxford by the generosity of the Provost and Fellows Sir James Murray, as already mentioned, had in of The Queen's College, who on that date gave a recognition of his services to scholarship received complimentary dinner to 'Dr.

Murray, Mr. Bradley, the honour of knighthood in , the and some others who have helped in the production announcement being made in the Birthday list of 26 of the Historical English Dictionary'. The time was a June, and the same distinction was bestowed on the fortunate one, for in that year it was still possible for third editor in the Birthday list of 3 June, Since the if it were to be at all a worthy and adequate addition " ED had been published over a period of forty-four to the main work, would demand intensive research years, it was inevitable that many later additions to by experienced workers extending over many years.

To remedy this as far as possible, the Dictionary. After this in the main be restricted to the treatment of those work had been finished the original ten-volume New accessions of words and senses which had taken English Dictionary on Historical Principles was, in place during the preceding fifty years.

To this August , reissued as The Oxford English limitation there were to be two principal exceptions: Dictionary in twelve volumes. An additional volume items of modern origin and contemporary currency was issued at the same time, containing the that had been either intentionally or accidentally Supplement of new words and meanings, the omitted from the Dictionary would be included, and Additions and Emendations prefixed to the original account would be taken of earlier evidence for volumes, revised and amplified, a List of Spurious American uses, which Sir William Craigie, at that Words, and a List of Books quoted in the principal time editing the Dictionary of American English in work; this last forming, as the Preface has it, 'a Chicago, was in a position to supply.

Temporary or bibliography of English literature such as does not casual uses were recognized only in so far as they exist elsewhere'. A few important! From the earliest days of the publication of the corrections or amplifications of existing definitions Dictionary it had been envisaged that a Supplement were introduced under the necessity of bringing the or Supplements might be necessary, in order to keep work into line with recent research. The details of the historical record of the language up to date, and this policy were established by Dr.

Onions, to take account of subsequent research into the under whose editorship the first Supplement to the vocabulary already covered by the Dictionary.

This OED was published in As in the main work, there was the evidence for what was already in print. It was continually present the problem of the inclusion or 19! But this the many foreign words reflecting the widened was not foreseen at the time. The original intention interest in the conditions and customs of distant was simply to amplify the existing Supplement in a countries; it was acknowledged that the problem single-volume work of some 1, pages which had not been satisfactorily and comprehensively would take account of the lexical development in solved in every instance, as the material from which English throughout the first half of the twentieth the Supplement was compiled had been collected century.

In , R. Burchfield, a New Zealander principally while the original Dictionary was still in who was then Lecturer in English Language and preparation, and following the same guidelines in Literature at Christ Church, Oxford, and formerly a operation during that work. In one respect the Rhodes Scholar at the University, accepted the Supplement went somewhat beyond the limits of invitation of the Delegates to edit the Supplement.

It the main Dictionary, in its more generous inclusion was envisaged that this new Supplement would take of proper names; but even so, these were not about seven years to complete. Walton Crescent, adjacent to the University Press's The result was a Supplement of over pages printing works and to the Clarendon Press itself.

Onions provided documentation of the English language up to the valuable continuity between the OED and the end of the first quarter of the twentieth century and projected new Supplement, and at the time it was still just beyond. However, extensive though it was, it possible for the editor to receive the advice and still represented only a restricted selection from a encouragement of a small number of people who large collection of material from which a much had worked on or for the Dictionary in other larger volume might have been produced.

Once it capacities. However, the lapse of some twenty years had been completed, the OED team dispersed, and since the disbanding of the original OED staff meant the editorial staff, including the last surviving Editor that one of the first duties incumbent on the new of the original Dictionary still in Oxford, Dr. The OED library in assistants. In the days of the Dictionary itself, Sir Oxford was broken up, and quotation slips that had James Murray had often found the recruitment of not been used were stored away, some later to be suitable staff to be a problematic and uncertain dispatched to other historical dictionary projects, affair, and so it proved again.

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Gradually, though, the notably for use in the preparation of the Middle initial difficulties began to subside, and early work English Dictionary at Ann Arbor, Michigan and the in the preparation of the new Supplement began to projected dictionary of Early Modern English.

Among the material left behind after work! After the Second World War the Delegates of the on the Supplement there was indeed a University Press decided to re-establish a collection of quotations numbering about ,, headquarters for the Dictionary in Oxford, and to few of which had appeared in the Supplement itself, prepare a revised version of the Supplement. In which included illustrative examples of words the end, this proved to be an even greater work than excluded in because they were not fully that which circumstances had forbidden in , an established at the time.

In an extensive reading file and were at hand when quotations included in programme was inaugurated, covering printed the dictionary needed checking. The sources included all development of the English language throughout the important literary works, as well as many the world had been much more rapid than either the hundreds of popular titles, a wide range of scientific Delegates of the Press or the Editor of the books and journals, and large numbers of Supplement had at that time considered, and that the newspapers and periodicals, ranging from the Supplement would occupy many more pages than national press to the publications of the had been originally intended.

The paramount 'underground'. Numerous works containing importance of reassessing the projected size of the lexicographical information, such as Notes and Supplement had been highlighted by the publication Queries, American Speech, and many dictionaries of in of Webster's Third New International regionalisms, slang, jargon, and technical language, Dictionary, which illustrated dramatically the were converted into the form of dictionary slips.

In proliferation of new vocabulary in North America addition, several valuable private collections were and Great Britain in the early and mid-twentieth submitted to the Press, and these were also added to century.

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Webster's Secondbad appeared just one year the quotation files. Thanks to these and subsequent after the earlier " ED Supplement, in , and valuable donations, to the comprehensiveness of the offered a perfect basis for comparison in terms of reading programme, to the alertness of the the rate of change in the language, bringing home departmental staff in their private reading, and to sharply to the Editor and his staff the necessity of the regular contributions of scholars and voluntary improving considerably the OED's own coverage of readers, the quotation file grew to contain at least American English, and, pari passu, other overseas two million, and possibly three million, slips by the varieties of English.

The original plans were revised time of the completion of the Supplement, and to allow for a Supplement spanning three and proved an excellent resource from which to make eventually four volumes, concentrating much more the initial selection of items for inclusion in the extensively on the vocabulary of North America, the dictionary and from which to document the history West Indies, Australia, and the other English- of each term up to the present day.

The Editor drew a At the same time it was necessary to build up a parallel between the current state of affairs on the reference library of books in the department to Supplement and Dry-den's remarks in the Preface to which staff could turn for additional information the Fables Some volumes from the Supplement library 'Tis with a Poet, as with a Man who designs to build, and were brought together again, and a further 7, or is very exact, as he supposes, in casting up the Cost so books, especially dictionaries, were gradually beforehand: But, generally speaking, he is mistaken in his acquired by the department.

These consisted of Account, and reckons short of the Expence he first books and periodicals dealing with the intended: He alters his Mind as the work proceeds, and development of English in Great Britain, America, will have this or that Convenience more, of which he had the Commonwealth, and elsewhere; a large not thought when he began. Besides assistant editors and and as many of the subject areas treated by the researchers in Oxford, the Supplement soon had dictionary as it was convenient to house in the permanent members of staff working as researchers editorial offices, besides many of the novels, plays, in the major libraries in London and Washington, 5 Supplement, Volume II, p.

A panel of specialist Burchfield to include not simply work on the consultants was established to read and comment Supplement, but also the compilation and revision of on individual entries in galley proof, and another the other Oxford Dictionaries, and for a time, a panel of scholars and writers to read through number of bilingual dictionaries as well.

The continuous sections of galley proof with a critical department removed, therefore, to more extensive eye. A radical departure from the policy adopted by offices in St Giles', Oxford, in ; saw the the editors of the original Dictionary was the publication of the third volume O-Scz ; and the appointment from of graduates in scientific Supplement was completed after twenty-nine years subjects, who took general responsibility for the of editorial effort with the publication of the final drafting of entries in these disciplines.

The necessity volume in Editorial work on the! Ian Hay's First Hundred Thousand contains Supplement began in earnest in , and the first the observation that 'the Oxford Dictionary of the instalment of copy -alpha was delivered to the English Language will have to be revised and University Printer on 27 May From this point enlarged when this war is over'.

This fact had not until the completion of the Supplement editorial staff escaped the notice of the Dictionary's editors, and were involved simultaneously in the preparation of they made ironic use of the quotation as evidence copy for press, and in dealing with proofs.

At first for the use of the adverb token sense 4b. William Clowes and the decision in the s to produce a Supplement Son Ltd. The dictionary was for the future. Gradually more staff were dictionary: The second volume H— employed in the parent work.

However, although it N , in which was included a dedication of the whole did concern itself almost exclusively with additions work to Her Majesty the Queen, appeared in ; to the language in the late nineteenth and twentieth by this time the editorial offices of the Dictionary centuries, many antedatings of material in the OED were no longer large enough to contain the had been collected in the Dictionary's files over the expanding number of staff, quotations, and research years, and it was decided that, since the work was materials necessary for its preparation.

Furthermore, intended to update the historical record for the the scope of the Dictionary department had modern period in general, the new Supplement 22! Important though these pre-datings century had been characterized. Furthermore, were, they still represented only a small fraction of whereas the OED had included nearly all the the dictionary, which was primarily concerned with vocabulary, including hapax legomena, of important new lexical items.

This objective was soon expanded wide range of major modern authors. In the event, the group. The arguments run, on the one hand, that to broadening of the reading programme to encompass allow such usages into a dictionary is equivalent to a much greater proportion of the written English of sanctioning their use, and may even bring them to North America, Australia, New Zealand, South the notice of a wider public than would otherwise Africa, India, Pakistan, and other regions than had have been the case; and on the other hand, that to been the case for the OED itself had a profound exclude such items would be tantamount to effect upon the eventual coverage of these areas corrupting the historical record of the language, and which the Supplement was able to achieve.

In earlier would represent the first stage in a process of years, Sir William Craigie had advocated the regulating the dictionary to fit the ethos of the times preparation of historical dictionaries treating rather than the facts of the language. After very specific varieties of English around the world.

This Scottish National Dictionary, and the Dictionary of was done long after such vocabulary had been Canadian English, had been compiled, which assisted admitted to areas of general literature, and on the the preparation of the Supplement in two ways. First, understanding that inclusion of these terms in a they provided additional often very detailed scholarly dictionary did not necessarily free evidence for items selected for the Supplement; dictionary editors to add them to dictionaries secondly, their existence allowed the Supplement to prepared for other audiences.

Two of the most omit many purely local items, on the grounds that notorious of these terms happened to fall in the entering them would simply duplicate material that alphabetical range covered by the first volume of the was readily available elsewhere. Supplement , where they appeared with a wide The standard vocabulary of British English was range of other colloquial and coarse expressions already well covered by the existing Dictionary.

As referring to sexual and excretory functions. Consideration of this led to the Supplement consisted of the scientific, technical, formulation of certain general lexicographical slang, dialectal, and other words which had passed guidelines for the Supplement: This simply extended the class of words from the OED; b it was therefore policy of the Supplement into the age of desirable to enter new racial and religious terms 23!

All quotations were filed alphabetically whom they were applied and often to those who according to catchword, and were available to staff had to use them, or however controversial the set of working on the Supplement, to those working on beliefs professed by the members of such groups; c other departmental projects, and to other interested it was also desirable, in order to avoid scholars. In order to establish which entries should antiquated historical records of some words in this be prepared for the Supplement, the entire quotation category already treated in the OED should be file was inspected section by section—in the early brought up to date.

Cards illustrating words and meanings terminology, the Supplement endeavoured to follow selected for inclusion in the Supplement were a policy which safeguarded scholarly standards extracted from the file, and grouped into while not doing anything to imperil the proprietary 'bundles' each consisting of between thirty and fifty rights of the owners of such terms.

The proprietary items , ready for drafting. The primary selection status of each term likely to fall into this category was made by comparing the contents of the file with was investigated thoroughly in Patent Office records the relevant section of the OED, along with that of in Britain and America, and elsewhere if this seemed the Supplement which the new Supplement was to be necessary.

If a term was found to be to supersede. In addition, note was taken of terms proprietary this was stated in the definition, and the not recorded or sparsely attested in the quotation earliest reference to the application or registration of file, but which seemed to deserve inclusion in the the name in the official literature was cited as one of Supplement on the basis of their appearance in other the illustrative quotations in the completed entry.

It dictionaries. Cards representing items already was sometimes found that a proprietary name had covered by the OED, as well as items considered too passed into general use: A brief description of the various processes editorial assistants for drafting. This process involved the preparation of volume of the Supplement may be found on a first draft of a dictionary entry for all of the items pp. For in a 'bundle'. Each assistant editor was expected to subsequent volumes a broadly similar method was prepare complete entries, i.

Clearly, the certain modifications were introduced to ensure that better an entry was prepared at this stage, the less the work was conducted in the most efficient work was needed in revising and editing it later. The following account contains a slightly During this process the material available from the more detailed description of the practices that quotation file was augmented by further quotations prevailed at the completion of the Supplement.

Collection of material. The raw material serving as a concordances, and other reference works. Often it basis for the selection and preparation of entries in was necessary for additional research work to be the Supplement consisted of the quotations which done in other libraries, such as the Bodleian Library were collected as a result of a programme of in Oxford, the British Library in London, the Library directed reading established in Many of Congress in Washington, and elsewhere, in order illustrative quotations were also supplied by to trace earlier and further quotations and to contributors outside the confines of the reading provide more detailed information for the 24!

This work was normally conducted by purpose an index of verified citation styles, library researchers appointed for the purpose. The consisting of the majority of the works cited in the library researchers were also responsible for Supplement, was maintained throughout the verifying quotations from sources not available in compilation of the work.

From it, a bibliography of the departmental library. All general items were the works most frequently cited in the Supplement drafted by non-specialist assistant editors; scientific, was published at the end of Volume IV. Dictionary entries on the edited slips or, when publication schedules were prepared in handwritten form on 6 x 4 in. Proofs and the use of specialist consultants. Copy cards containing the relevant headword, for the Supplement was sent in regular instalments to pronunciation and etymology where appropriate, the printer, from whom multiple sets of galley proof the definition, and other information, followed by for each range were received in corresponding other cards bearing the quotations selected to instalments for further review.

When the entries were complete Up to this point, the entries had been compiled and all outstanding library research had been entirely by the departmental staff; at this stage, they returned they were filed in the main alphabetical were submitted to outside scrutiny. Entries relating sequence of copy in readiness for subsequent review to particular disciplines or geographical regions by senior staff.

In order to allow the Editor to proceed knowledge: At first, this consideration. Furthermore, several complete sets of involved the incorporation by senior editors of each batch of galley proofs were sent to critical scientific and technical drafting into the main readers for general comments.

The improvements sequence of entries with concomitant adjustments suggested by such independent experts were vital in to sense ordering, etc. Subsequently this was extended to These comments and suggestions were incorporated the inspection and, if necessary, revision of each by the Editor or by his senior colleagues, along with entry.

Quotations recently added to the quotation the routine proof corrections. Quotations which had file were considered, and alterations made to entries gathered in the files since the preparation of the in the light of these; occasionally new entries were copy were inspected, and in the light of them prepared if the fresh material warranted this.

The v. The final stage of entry preparation was, corrected galleys were then reviewed by the Editor, naturally, the sole responsibility of the Editor.

Every and returned to the printer for setting in pages. After the second round of page proof, the material was finally passed vi.

Bibliographical collation. In the course of drafting, for press. By the time that the last pages of Volume editorial staff endeavoured to ensure that the IV were undergoing these final procedures, the bibliographical details of works cited were correct. For this 25!

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A preliminary study, carried out by the Oxford Early in , when the editing of the third and English Dictionaries Department in March fourth volumes of A Supplement to the Oxford English under the supervision of Dr R. Burchfield, Dictionary had reached an advanced stage, the concluded that both the conversion of the texts by Oxford University Press set itself to consider the manual keyboarding and their integration by future of the OED.

The two questions of whether experienced editors were feasible;6 the report also any further amplification or revision of the listed the main aspects of the OED which were ripe Dictionary should be undertaken, and whether an for revision and correction. The Senior Officers of attempt should be made to combine the main OED the Press determined at once to pursue the idea.

Publishing a national monument, it was felt to be quite proper to supplement to the Supplement, or adding further solicit assistance, whether financial or technical, material to it, had to be rejected as unsatisfactory from Government departments, research expedients.

The OED and Supplement should be institutions, or industrial companies. Accordingly, combined before any further development was Mr Richard Charkin, the then Head of Reference possible. Publishing, initiated a large number of approaches How should this amalgamation be performed? By the end of in hot metal. A new edition, whatever it might the year the first outlines had emerged of a project entail, would have to be typeset by computer.

In March a small team was set up within deletions, was dismissed. The technology of textual the Press to begin the planning of the project. Its processing by computer was now at a stage of first task was to write the appeal booklet. It was development that made it a highly appropriate tool decided that this should combine two aims. The first for the task that OUP contemplated.

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The OED in part, a clear explanation of the background and machine-readable form, structured for use in a purpose of the project, was intended both for database management system, would be relatively general information and more specifically to arouse easy to revise and, moreover, would be susceptible the interest of any institutions or individuals who of a number of other applications, especially as a might wish to enter into some kind of partnership in publicly available computer database.

Indeed, the the project. The second part, giving detailed conversion of the Dictionary into electronic form, for technical specifications, was to be used by firms just such a purpose, had already been suggested by wishing to tender for the work of computerizing parties both inside and outside the Press. It was and merging the text.

Copies were sent to computer facilitate the amalgamation, and subsequent editing, companies, data conversion firms, on-line database 6 The feasibility of using an optical scanner to convert the text of the Dictionary in to machine-readable from was also investigated by OUP at this point, as also by others later.

It was generally agreed that the complexity of the structure and the irregularity of the type would require and excessively large amount of editorial intervention in the scanning process; and it was not clear how an adequate framework of structural make-up could be introduced into the text alongside this method of data conversion.

They undertook the task Government. A deadline of 1 August was set, by of designing a database system suitable for the which time four firms had submitted tenders.

The dissemination of the OED in electronic form and for project team, evaluating these, quickly found that, the phase of updating and editing which would while each tender had its own particular strengths, follow integration. The geographical distribution of none furnished the Press with grounds for this partnership was felt by OUP to symbolize quite confidence that one tenderer, alone, could carry out suitably the international significance of the OED.

Recognition of the national importance of the The initial idea had been that the chosen supplier project followed soon afterwards. A copy of the would convert the text into electronic form, merge brochure had been favourably received by the the OED and Supplement, and supply the resulting British Government, and as a result a subvention computer database to OUP; then, using the text towards the cost of the lexicographical research was editing system newly installed at OUP, announced by the Department of Trade and lexicographical staff would revise and correct the Industry in May Dictionary interactively and pass it on for There was one other development of great composition and filmsetting.

It now became evident importance towards the end of Fifty years that to carry out integration, to create a fully before, the remainder of the team responsible for the searchable database system, and to revise the bulk OED, having completed the original Supplement, of the text in a single step would be impracticable, dispersed, and there followed an interval of a whole and it would be far too long before any new edition generation during which no original historical of the Dictionary could be published.

A revised lexicography was carried on at OUP. Because of this, approach was needed. The project had to be broken the new Supplement had to be started virtually from down into smaller components; a number of scratch, and needed many years to make up the lost different project partners were required, each ground. It was imperative to avoid the repetition of responsible for what it could do best; and OUP such a hiatus at the completion of the Supplement.

By engaged in the drafting of entries in Volume IV was the end of , partnerships had been established set to continue the work of compiling new entries, with three contrasting institutions.

These were as starting again from A, but also taking in new words yet on an informal basis, but during the succeeding and senses anywhere in the alphabet for which months of joint exploration they rapidly crystallized entries were clearly needed.

This new series of into formal agreements. Fort Washington, Pennsylvania, was selected to Although a complete updating of the Dictionary carry out the conversion of the two texts into was now postponed to a second phase of the project, electronic form.

By into one. Early in it was confirmed that this the end of , partnerships had been established assistance would take the form of a donation under with three contrasting institutions. The on an informal basis, but during the succeeding University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada, had months of joint exploration they rapidly crystallized expressed great interest in the research aspects of into formal agreements.

The selection and editing of these facilitate the integration of the two electronic texts articles was set in motion, and their text converted into one. Add to Wishlist. Oxford Dictionary of English is here boasting an even greater catalog of words and senses, thanks to the latest Oxford University Press update.

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