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Antigone Sophokles - Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia Namespaces Article Talk. The Chorus in Antigone departs significantly from the chorus in Aeschylus' Seven Against Thebes , the play of which Antigone is a continuation. Holand, P. Razgovorni srpskohrvatski jezik. Prvi utisak je bio nalik onom koji imate kada otvorite zadnju stranu radio aparata:
The Chorus in Antigone departs significantly from the chorus in Aeschylus' Seven Against Thebes , the play of which Antigone is a continuation. The chorus in Seven Against Thebes is largely supportive of Antigone's decision to bury her brother. Here, the chorus is composed of old men who are largely unwilling to see civil disobedience in a positive light. The chorus also represents a typical difference in Sophocles' plays from those of both Aeschylus and Euripides.
A chorus of Aeschylus' almost always continues or intensifies the moral nature of the play, while one of Euripides' frequently strays far from the main moral theme. The chorus in Antigone lies somewhere in between; it remains within the general moral and the immediate scene, but allows itself to be carried away from the occasion or the initial reason for speaking. In this play Sophocles raises a number of questions: Should Polyneices, who committed a serious crime that threatened the city, be given burial rituals, or should his body be left unburied as prey for scavenging animals?
Should someone who attempts to bury him in defiance of Creon be punished in an especially cruel and horrible way? In this play, Creon is not presented as a monster, but as a leader who is doing what he considers right and justified by the state. The chorus is presented as a group of citizens who, though they may feel uneasy about the treatment of the corpse, respect Creon and what he is doing. The chorus is sympathetic to Antigone only when she is led off to her death.
The city is of primary importance to the chorus. Most of the arguments to save her center on a debate over which course adheres best to strict justice. Both Antigone and Creon claim divine sanction for their actions; but Tiresias the prophet supports Antigone's claim that the gods demand Polyneices' burial.
It is not until the interview with Tiresias that Creon transgresses and is guilty of sin. He had no divine intimation that his edict would be displeasing to the Gods and against their will.
He is here warned that it is, but he defends it and insults the prophet of the Gods. This is his sin, and it is this which leads to his punishment. The terrible calamities that overtake Creon are not the result of his exalting the law of the state over the unwritten and divine law which Antigone vindicates, but are his intemperance which led him to disregard the warnings of Tiresias until it was too late.
This is emphasized by the Chorus in the lines that conclude the play. According to the legal practice of classical Athens, Creon is obliged to marry his closest relative Haemon to the late king's daughter in an inverted marriage rite, which would oblige Haemon to produce a son and heir for his dead father in law.
Creon would be deprived of grandchildren and heirs to his lineage — a fact which provides a strong realistic motive for his hatred against Antigone. This modern perspective has remained submerged for a long time. His interpretation is in three phases: In the first two lines of the first strophe, in the translation Heidegger used, the chorus says that there are many strange things on earth, but there is nothing stranger than man.
Beginnings are important to Heidegger, and he considered those two lines to describe primary trait of the essence of humanity within which all other aspects must find their essence. Those two lines are so fundamental that the rest of the verse is spent catching up with them.
The authentic Greek definition of humankind is the one who is strangest of all. Man is deinon in the sense that he is the terrible, violent one, and also in the sense that he uses violence against the overpowering.
Man is twice deinon. When Antigone opposes Creon, her suffering the uncanny, is her supreme action. An important issue still debated regarding Sophocles' Antigone is the problem of the second burial. When she poured dust over her brother's body, Antigone completed the burial rituals and thus fulfilled her duty to him. Having been properly buried, Polyneices' soul could proceed to the underworld whether or not the dust was removed from his body.
However, Antigone went back after his body was uncovered and performed the ritual again, an act that seems to be completely unmotivated by anything other than a plot necessity so that she could be caught in the act of disobedience, leaving no doubt of her guilt. More than one commentator has suggested that it was the gods, not Antigone, who performed the first burial, citing both the guard's description of the scene and the chorus's observation.
Gilbert Norwood explains Antigone's performance of the second burial in terms of her stubbornness. His argument says that had Antigone not been so obsessed with the idea of keeping her brother covered, none of the deaths of the play would have happened. This argument states that if nothing had happened, nothing would have happened, and doesn't take much of a stand in explaining why Antigone returned for the second burial when the first would have fulfilled her religious obligation, regardless of how stubborn she was.
This leaves that she acted only in passionate defiance of Creon and respect to her brother's earthly vessel. Tycho von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff justifies the need for the second burial by comparing Sophocles' Antigone to a theoretical version where Antigone is apprehended during the first burial.
In this situation, news of the illegal burial and Antigone's arrest would arrive at the same time and there would be no period of time in which Antigone's defiance and victory could be appreciated. Rose maintains that the solution to the problem of the second burial is solved by close examination of Antigone as a tragic character.
Being a tragic character, she is completely obsessed by one idea, and for her this is giving her brother his due respect in death and demonstrating her love for him and for what is right.
When she sees her brother's body uncovered, therefore, she is overcome by emotion and acts impulsively to cover him again, with no regards to the necessity of the action or its consequences for her safety. Bonnie Honig uses the problem of the second burial as the basis for her claim that Ismene performs the first burial, and that her pseudo-confession before Creon is actually an honest admission of guilt. A well established theme in Antigone is the right of the individual to reject society's infringement on her freedom to perform a personal obligation.
The contrasting views of Creon and Antigone with regard to laws higher than those of state inform their different conclusions about civil disobedience. Creon demands obedience to the law above all else, right or wrong. He says that "there is nothing worse than disobedience to authority" An. Antigone responds with the idea that state law is not absolute, and that it can be broken in civil disobedience in extreme cases, such as honoring the gods, whose rule and authority outweigh Creon's.
In Antigone , Sophocles asks the question, which law is greater: Sophocles votes for the law of the gods. He does this in order to save Athens from the moral destruction which seems imminent.
Sophocles wants to warn his countrymen about hubris, or arrogance, because he believes this will be their downfall. In Antigone, the hubris of Creon is on display. Creon's decree to leave Polyneices unburied in itself makes a bold statement about what it means to be a citizen, and what constitutes abdication of citizenship. It was the firmly kept custom of the Greeks that each city was responsible for the burial of its citizens.
Herodotus discussed how members of each city would collect their own dead after a large battle to bury them. Since he is a citizen of Thebes, it would have been natural for the Thebans to bury him. Creon is telling his people that Polyneices has distanced himself from them, and that they are prohibited from treating him as a fellow-citizen and burying him as is the custom for citizens.
In prohibiting the people of Thebes from burying Polyneices, Creon is essentially placing him on the level of the other attackers—the foreign Argives. For Creon, the fact that Polyneices has attacked the city effectively revokes his citizenship and makes him a foreigner.
As defined by this decree, citizenship is based on loyalty. It is revoked when Polyneices commits what in Creon's eyes amounts to treason. When pitted against Antigone's view, this understanding of citizenship creates a new axis of conflict.
Antigone does not deny that Polyneices has betrayed the state, she simply acts as if this betrayal does not rob him of the connection that he would have otherwise had with the city. Creon, on the other hand, believes that citizenship is a contract; it is not absolute or inalienable, and can be lost in certain circumstances.
These two opposing views — that citizenship is absolute and undeniable and alternatively that citizenship is based on certain behavior — are known respectively as citizenship 'by nature' and citizenship 'by law. Antigone's determination to bury Polyneices arises from a desire to bring honor to her family, and to honor the higher law of the gods. She repeatedly declares that she must act to please "those that are dead" An. In the opening scene, she makes an emotional appeal to her sister Ismene saying that they must protect their brother out of sisterly love, even if he did betray their state.
Antigone believes that there are rights that are inalienable because they come from the highest authority, or authority itself, that is the divine law. While he rejects Antigone's actions based on family honor, Creon appears to value family himself. When talking to Haemon, Creon demands of him not only obedience as a citizen, but also as a son. Creon says "everything else shall be second to your father's decision" "An. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Other resolutions: Structured data Captions English Add a one-line explanation of what this file represents.
It has been marked as inferior to this raster image. For more information, see Help: The following other wikis use this file: Usage on en. Retrieved from " https: From reader to Reading Teacher: Issues and strategies for second language classrooms. Alderson, J. Cognition and levels of comprehension as embodied in test questions.
Reading in a Foreign Language, 5, Assessing Reading. The effect of students' academic discipline on their performance on ESP reading tests. Language Testing, 2, Brown, H. Language Assessment: Principles and Classroom Practice.
White Plains, NY: Pearson Education. Carrell, P. Interactive Approaches to Second Language Reading. Carrol, B. Elt Documents, Issues in Language Teaching. Carter, R. Cohen, A. Assessing Language Ability in the Classroom. Boston Massachusets: Heinle Heinle Publishers. Davies, A. Dictionary of Language Testing. Day, R. Extensive Reading in the Second Language Classroom. Testiranje u nastavi stranih jezika, Beograd: Grabe, W.
Foundations for L2 Reading Instruction. Writing English language tests. Hughes, A. Testing for Language Teachers. Johnson, K.
Language Teaching and Skill Learning. Neobjavljen magistarski rad. Banja Luka: Krashen, S. The case for narrow reading. The Power of Reading: Insights from the Research. Connecticut and London: Libraries Unlimited. Meyer, B.
The organization of prose and its effects on memory. New York, NY: North Holland. Nunan, D. Language Teaching Methodology: A textbook for Teachers. Prentice Hall International, Hemel Hampstead. Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language, 2nded. Heineman ELT. Wallace, M. Walters, S. Teaching Practice Handbook: Receptive skills: Wesley, A. The Reading Acquisition Framework. The paper examines specific characteristics of reading, different subskills and kinds involved in this complex process, which a modern foreign language teacher ought to know and seriously take into consideration in order to develop and assess this skill more efficiently within the foreign language in an integrated, communicative foreign language instruction in the future.
Pre upisa na postdiplomske studije, Tema disertacije je D. Zaposlena na Filozofskom fakultetu u Banjaluci od Od juna Hournac R. The focus of this paper is the verbs imitating animal sounds and their use as a metaphorical reflection of the culture of the speakers among the Serbian diaspora in the south of France, in Provence. These verbs are used in everyday language to express a full range of emotions: Most of respondents were consistent with the fact that the use of these verbs usually carries negative connotations.
They use these verbs under the onslaught of emotions and especially due to dissatisfaction and unhappiness in life or when they are angry with someone, they do not have good communication with someone or they do not have a good opinion of someone, they want ridicule someone Only few respondents answered that they use these verbs when they want be funny, in some of farces, in a relaxed company.
One respondent said that she uses these verbs to create an expressive language.
Bugarski Brojni su primeri metonimijskog transfera: U tom smislu Ulman Ullmann, What is a Yngling? Zaista su brojni false cognates na relaciji engleski-srpski: Katamba Kinnock is now Prime ministerable. A istina je da nije lako kretati se poljem na kom nema prethodno dobro pripremljenih puteva. Literatura Adams, V. Bugarski, R.
Chapman, R. The Language of English Literature. Edward Arnold. Cook, G. Applied Linguistics. Oxford and New York: Crystal, D. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Kultura kao faktor u nastavi engleskog jezika kao stranog. Katamba, F. Leech, G. A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry. Longman Group Ltd.
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This concept accepted, translators can be justly expected to reduce the losses incurred by translation to the minimum, if necessary also creating new peculiarities and innovative solutions in the patterns of behaviour characterising their own language, i.
Finally, notes offered by translators of literary works and other types of texts serve as the vehicle to provide explanations, even if necessary to defend their own unusual ways of expression. Od maja Hol, Svetla komora: Bernstajn, B. Burgin, V. Centar za savremenu umetnost. Burgin Ed. Macmillan Education. Photographic Practice and Art Theory.
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Hammond, P. Cultural Identity and Ideology. Hartman, G. The Humanities of Testimony: An Introduction. Haukins, A. Selo i engleski identitet I. Morli, K. Robins Prir. Beograd, Geopoetika. Hobsbom, E.
Hobsbom, T. Beograd, Biblioteka XX vek. Kodiranje, dekodiranje V. Holand, P. Vels Prir. Beograd, Clio. Family photographs, with which everyone can identify because of their "emotional aura", are bridge over the gap that divides observers who are personally linked to a photograph of those who are not. It is entering into a mental time zone, past and present, meet memory, whose interpretation is imperative to keep the reflection Ronit Lentin.
As the memory is a form of self-representation, the question of identity is important as a concept and as a fact of modern political life.
Douglas Kellner states that for cultural studies the concept of ideology is the most important because the dominant ideologies seek to reproduce the social relations of domination and subordination. A key step of Stuart Hall, one of the pioneers of British cultural studies, was derived from structuralism by explaining ideology, politics and culture as a work of language. Hall focused on the concept of representation and showed that the experience of reality is always perceived through the symbolic categories that society provides: On these signs and symbols is based our relationship and our understanding of the various forms of photography.
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Said, V. Numerous works of the famous Nobel Prize winner received more attention and acclaim than this short story. This paper tries to contextualise the magnificently structured story that was created over a long period of time, and still appears as a perfect whole.
On the other hand, it also provides a description of heroism and grandeur, as opposed to the weakness and vulnerability of the folk hero. Iako su krajem Sredinom Prvih 7 stihova rimuju se ababcde a poslednja 3 u svakoj strofi menjaju se kao cde, dce, ced, cde, dce.
Vidi Havens, nav. Mnogi su mu taj uspeh osporili. Naravno, ne treba precenjivati uticaj helenizma kod Kitsa. Horne Keats and Hellenism. Cambrigde University Press. Bate, W. John Keats. Harvard University Press. Bloom, H. John Keats, His life and Writings. Wiedenfeld and Nicolson. The Macmillan Company. Tradition and Individual Talent. In Selected Essays. Gittings, R.
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This paper deals with the motif of misogyny in the twentieth century dystopian novel The Handmaid's Tale written by Canadian authoress Margaret Atwood. It explores the relationship between the same and opposite sexes, while the special focus has been put on representation of the society within the repressive regime of imaginary Republic of Galad, whose borders coincide with the contemporary USA borders, as well as on the religiously coloured rhetoric serving as the most powerful means of control and oppression of women.
Throughout subjective narration of the main heroine and the insight into her internal world, the novel reveals a destructive social system that limits freedom and reduces women to a mere reproductive function. Margaret Atwood has offered another approach to dystopian literature due to her narrator's feminine sensibility, casting a new light on the repressive regime being mirrored in culture and society.
The aim of this paper is to, by following the critical reading of Corall Ann Howells and providing the concrete examples from the novel, demonstrate how the oppression of women is triggered and empowered by men and women equally. Waldman, The Cambridge History of American Literature. Cambridge UP.
Bird, M. What We Want to Be Called. American Indian Quarterly, Volume 23, Number 2, University Review Univerzitetska misao , 12 2 , 1- Kupat, A. The Indian Autobiography: Origins, Type, and Function.
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