Layer 3 switching, and routing. • Identify the layers of the OSI model. • Describe the functionality of LAN, MAN, and WAN networks. • Identify the possible media. TRADEMARKS: Sybex has attempted throughout this book to distinguish proprietary trademarks Adapted from MCSE: Networking Essentials Study Guide. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Networking: The Complete Reference | From the Book:Introduction Networking: The Complete Reference is divided into parts, .
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Since the late s, he has developed and taught courses in networking and .. This part of the book introduces networking concepts and explains both the. archive of html files, mmoonneeyy.info format, and in other formats as may prove useful. The book can also be used as a networks supplement or. Computer Networking: Principles, Protocols, and Practice was written by Dr. Olivier Bonaventure .. 2 In this book, we focus on networks that are used on Earth.
A firewall is a program that decides whether traffic coming into a server or going out should be allowed. If an interface is said to be connected to the WAN, it is generally assumed that it is reachable through the internet. Protocols Networking works by piggybacking a number of different protocols on top of each other. Follow the links below to download and read the best free computer networking books online. Introduction A basic understanding of networking is important for anyone managing a server.
Typically, your server will have one configurable network interface for each Ethernet or wireless internet card you have. In addition, it will define a virtual network interface called the "loopback" or localhost interface.
This is used as an interface to connect applications and processes on a single computer to other applications and processes. You can see this referenced as the "lo" interface in many tools.
Many times, administrators configure one interface to service traffic to the internet and another interface for a LAN or private network. In DigitalOcean, in datacenters with private networking enabled, your VPS will have two networking interfaces in addition to the local interface.
The "eth0" interface will be configured to handle traffic from the internet, while the "eth1" interface will operate to communicate with the private network. Networking works by piggybacking a number of different protocols on top of each other.
In this way, one piece of data can be transmitted using multiple protocols encapsulated within one another. We will talk about some of the more common protocols that you may come across and attempt to explain the difference, as well as give context as to what part of the process they are involved with.
We will start with protocols implemented on the lower networking layers and work our way up to protocols with higher abstraction. Media access control is a communications protocol that is used to distinguish specific devices. Each device is supposed to get a unique MAC address during the manufacturing process that differentiates it from every other device on the internet.
Addressing hardware by the MAC address allows you to reference a device by a unique value even when the software on top may change the name for that specific device during operation.
Media access control is one of the only protocols from the link layer that you are likely to interact with on a regular basis. The IP protocol is one of the fundamental protocols that allow the internet to work. IP addresses are unique on each network and they allow machines to address each other across a network.
Networks can be linked together, but traffic must be routed when crossing network boundaries. This protocol assumes an unreliable network and multiple paths to the same destination that it can dynamically change between. There are a number of different implementations of the protocol. The most common implementation today is IPv4, although IPv6 is growing in popularity as an alternative due to the scarcity of IPv4 addresses available and improvements in the protocols capabilities.
ICMP stands for internet control message protocol. It is used to send messages between devices to indicate the availability or error conditions. These packets are used in a variety of network diagnostic tools, such as ping and traceroute. Usually ICMP packets are transmitted when a packet of a different kind meets some kind of a problem. Basically, they are used as a feedback mechanism for network communications.
TCP stands for transmission control protocol.
TCP is one of the protocols that encapsulates data into packets. It then transfers these to the remote end of the connection using the methods available on the lower layers. On the other end, it can check for errors, request certain pieces to be resent, and reassemble the information into one logical piece to send to the application layer.
The protocol builds up a connection prior to data transfer using a system called a three-way handshake. This is a way for the two ends of the communication to acknowledge the request and agree upon a method of ensuring data reliability. It is safe to say that the internet we know today would not be here without TCP. UDP stands for user datagram protocol. It is a popular companion protocol to TCP and is also implemented in the transport layer. It does not verify that data has been received on the other end of the connection.
This might sound like a bad thing, and for many purposes, it is.
However, it is also extremely important for some functions. Because it is not required to wait for confirmation that the data was received and forced to resend data, UDP is much faster than TCP. It does not establish a connection with the remote host, it simply fires off the data to that host and doesn't care if it is accepted or not.
Because it is a simple transaction, it is useful for simple communications like querying for network resources. It also doesn't maintain a state, which makes it great for transmitting data from one machine to many real-time clients.
This makes it ideal for VOIP, games, and other applications that cannot afford delays. HTTP stands for hypertext transfer protocol. It is a protocol defined in the application layer that forms the basis for communication on the web.
HTTP defines a number of functions that tell the remote system what you are requesting. FTP stands for file transfer protocol. It is also in the application layer and provides a way of transferring complete files from one host to another.
It is inherently insecure, so it is not recommended for any externally facing network unless it is implemented as a public, download-only resource. DNS stands for domain name system. It is an application layer protocol used to provide a human-friendly naming mechanism for internet resources.
It is what ties a domain name to an IP address and allows you to access sites by name in your browser. SSH stands for secure shell. It is an encrypted protocol implemented in the application layer that can be used to communicate with a remote server in a secure way. Many additional technologies are built around this protocol because of its end-to-end encryption and ubiquity. There are many other protocols that we haven't covered that are equally important. However, this should give you a good overview of some of the fundamental technologies that make the internet and networking possible.
At this point, you should be familiar with some basic networking terminology and be able to understand how different components are able to communicate with each other. This should assist you in understanding other articles and the documentation of your system.
Twitter Facebook Hacker News. Subscribe Subscribed. We hope you find this tutorial helpful. In addition to guides like this one, we provide simple cloud infrastructure for developers. Introduction A basic understanding of networking is important for anyone managing a server. Networking Glossary Before we begin discussing networking with any depth, we must define some common terms that you will see throughout this guide, and in other guides and documentation regarding networking.
These terms will be expanded upon in the appropriate sections that follow: Network Interface: A network interface can refer to any kind of software interface to networking hardware.
For instance, if you have two network cards in your computer, you can control and configure each network interface associated with them individually. A protocol is a set of rules and standards that basically define a language that devices can use to communicate. There are a great number of protocols in use extensively in networking, and they are often implemented in different layers. Network Layers While networking is often discussed in terms of topology in a horizontal way, between hosts, its implementation is layered in a vertical fashion throughout a computer or network.
This model defines seven separate layers. The layers in this model are: It defines the four separate layers, some of which overlap with the OSI model: In this model, the application layer is responsible for creating and transmitting user data between applications. The applications can be on remote systems, and should appear to operate as if locally to the end user. The communication is said to take place between peers.
Interfaces Interfaces are networking communication points for your computer. Protocols Networking works by piggybacking a number of different protocols on top of each other. Media Access Control Media access control is a communications protocol that is used to distinguish specific devices.
IP The IP protocol is one of the fundamental protocols that allow the internet to work. After the data has been sent, the connection is torn down using a similar four-way handshake. Conclusion At this point, you should be familiar with some basic networking terminology and be able to understand how different components are able to communicate with each other.
By Justin Ellingwood. Upvote Spin up an SSD cloud server in under a minute. Author Eugene Blanchard completed this book based on his experience with the Linux operating system.
The topics covered in this book are generally applicable across environments: OSI model, area networks, modems, and wired and wireless connections. This page book broken up into 63 chapters should satisfy the basic needs of anyone looking to get familiar with a wide range of network technologies. The entire book is viewable online in separate web pages, so you don't need to bother with downloading it to your computer or phone. This page book written by Dr.
This free networking book is available online as a read-only PDF document. You can download the book to your computer, phone, etc. Written by Olivier Bonaventure, this free networking book covers primary concepts and even includes some exercises toward the end, as well as a full glossary defining lots of network concepts. With over pages and six chapters, "Computer Networking: Principles, Protocols and Practice" covers the application layer, transport layer, network layer, and data link layer, as well as principles, access control, and technologies used in Local Area Networks.