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mmoonneeyy.info IELTS-SIMON IELTS Academic Writing Task 2 In the second part of the IELTS Academic Writing Test, you have to write. How should you prepare for IELTS writing task 2? There is an enormous amount of advice on my website mmoonneeyy.info Here is a summary of what I suggest. 5 days ago One of the key principles that you should remember when writing a task 2 essay is this: make sure that your position is clear throughout the.
I believe that the purpose of education should be to help children to grow as individuals. The relative success of different countries is usually defined in economic terms. Firstly, if a language is only spoken by a small number of people, expensive education programmes will be needed to make sure that more people learn it, and the state will have to pay for facilities, teachers and marketing. What reasons and examples are given? Elapse Dreammaker Kibria. Perhaps the main reason for this is that both parents often work full-time and therefore spend less time with their children. The advertising industry employs many people.
If you can write the introduction quickly, you will have more time to focus on the main paragraphs - these are the key to a high score.
Here's a question that someone asked me about: In many cities, security measures, such as the use of video cameras in public places, are being increased in order to reduce crime, but some people believe that these measures restrict our individual freedom. Do the benefits of increased security outweigh the drawbacks?
Here's my short, fast introduction: It is true that the security in many cities has been tightened in recent years. Although I agree that some security measures can feel restrictive, I believe that there are more benefits than drawbacks.
I've used some of the words from the question, but there are some nice changes too e. As an ex-examiner, my advice is that you should use phrases like "I believe" or "in my opinion" when the question asks for your opinion e. Some teachers tell students not to use "I" in academic essays, but this advice is really for university academic writing, not IELTS. This, they argue, leads to a more satisfying working life. To what extent do you agree with this view?
What other things can people do in order to have a satisfying working life? In today's lesson I just want to look at how to write an introduction for this type of question. My simple rules for task 2 introductions are: Write 2 sentences: Mention everything that the question mentions. Don't save any surprises for the conclusion; give your opinion in the introduction if the question asks for it.
Here's an example introduction: It is true that some people know from an early age what career they want to pursue, and they are happy to spend the rest of their lives in the same profession. While I accept that this may suit many people, I believe that others enjoy changing careers or seeking job satisfaction in different ways.
I'll look at the main paragraphs next week. I tried to use an "Idea, Explain, Example" structure for the first paragraph, and a "Firstly, Secondly, Finally" structure for the second. Main body paragraphs: On the one hand, having a defined career path can certainly lead to a satisfying working life. Many people decide as young children what they want to do as adults, and it gives them a great sense of satisfaction to work towards their goals and gradually achieve them. In my experience, very few people who have qualified as doctors choose to change career because they find their work so rewarding, and because they have invested so much time and effort to reach their goal.
On the other hand, people find happiness in their working lives in different ways. Firstly, not everyone dreams of doing a particular job, and it can be equally rewarding to try a variety of professions; starting out on a completely new career path can be a reinvigorating experience. Secondly, some people see their jobs as simply a means of earning money, and they are happy if their salary is high enough to allow them to enjoy life outside work.
Finally, job satisfaction is often the result of working conditions, rather than the career itself. For example, a positive working atmosphere, enthusiastic colleagues, and an inspirational boss can make working life much more satisfying, regardless of the profession. These two paragraphs should be short and simple; a long, complex introduction or conclusion will not give you a high score.
Just make your introductions and conclusions quick and concise, and spend your time writing really good main body paragraphs. Here's my introduction and conclusion for the topic of my last two writing lessons: Introduction There are various benefits and drawbacks of books, radio and television as ways to convey information.
In my view, television is definitely the most effective of these three media. Conclusion In conclusion, although books, radio and television each have their advantages and disadvantages, it seems to me that the impact of television is greater. My answer is that using easy organising language like "firstly, secondly, finally" allows you to focus on the real content of what you are writing - topic vocabulary, collocations, examples.
You can get a band 9 using "firstly, secondly, finally" if the ideas between these linking words are good. Some simple alternatives to "firstly, secondly, finally" could be: For 'agree or disagree' essays, do you think you should give both sides of the argument or just one side?
The answer is that you can do either. A Essay structure for one side of the argument: First idea to support your opinion 3. Second idea to support your opinion 4. On the one hand, On the other hand, This tells the examiner whether you are going to give one side of the argument or both sides. I normally write my topic sentences by thinking about how many points I want to mention in the paragraph: If I only have one point or idea, I usually state it straight away: In my opinion, junk food is the main cause of childhood obesity.
Did you begin your main paragraphs with good topic sentences? Can you name each type? Can you explain the big difference between the first and the second type? Some people think that the only purpose of working hard is to earn money. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?
Some people believe that punishment is the only purpose of prisons, while others believe that prisons exist for various reasons. The number of plants and animals is declining. Explain this problem and suggest some solutions. Many people around the world are choosing to move to live in cities.
What problems do people experience in big cities? Should governments encourage people to move to smaller towns? I'll explain the differences in detail next Wednesday, but feel free to discuss your ideas in the "comments" area below.
Opinion 2. An 'opinion' question asks for your view, not the views of other people, and you don't have to give both sides of the argument. Just make your opinion clear in the introduction, then explain it in the rest of the essay. A 'discussion' question requires you to write about both sides of the argument, and you should write a similar amount for each view.
If the question also asks for your opinion, you don't need an extra paragraph. Just make it clear in the introduction and conclusion which of the two views you agree with. Type 3 is easy. Simply write a paragraph explaining the problem s and a paragraph explaining the solution s. Some questions ask about 'causes' or 'effects': For type 4, just answer the two questions. Write one paragraph about each. Plan your essay around the examples. Take this question: Some people believe that hobbies need to be difficult to be enjoyable.
Use examples to give you ideas: Label each hobby 'easy' or 'difficult'. Is there a balance between easy and difficult hobbies, or is your list one-sided? The answer to this question will give you your overall opinion. Is there a connection between the difficulty of the hobby and the enjoyment you get from it? Can you see the difference between the two questions below? A Explain the positives and negatives of this development. B Is this a positive or negative development? A What are the advantages and disadvantages?
B Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages? A Discuss both views and give your opinion. B To what extent do you agree or disagree? The difference is that for all of the A questions you must explain both sides of the argument, whereas the B questions can be answered by giving both sides or by supporting only one side, depending on the view that you express in your introduction. This is still the most common confusion that students ask me about. Make sure you understand the difference between the questions above; if you're still unsure, look through all of my task 2 lessons to see further advice and examples.
If you start writing your essay straight away, without preparing some ideas first, you will probably get stuck and start to panic! Take this recent exam question: The range and quality of food that we can buy has changed because of technological and scientific advances. Some people regard this change as an improvement, while others believe that it is harmful. Discuss both views and give your own opinion. I think you'll agree that this is a tricky question. My advice would be to spend about10 minutes planning.
Follow these steps before you start writing: Take a couple of minutes to read and understand the question. Decide what each of your 4 paragraphs should contain. Spend around 6 minutes noting down ideas for the two points of view. But what should you put in the second sentence basic answer if the question doesn't ask for your opinion?
Here are two example questions: Many people believe that an effective public transport system is a key component of a modern city. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of public transport. Crime rates tend to be higher in cities than in smaller towns.
Explain some possible reasons for this problem, and suggest some solutions. Here are two sample introductions: Officials in many cities are keen to develop efficient public transport systems.
While public transport has many benefits, there are also some drawbacks which are worth considering. Cities generally experience higher levels of criminality than towns or villages. There are various reasons for this, but measures could be taken to tackle the problem. Hopefully you can see that it's quite easy to write an introduction for these types of question. Here's a question that a student sent me: Some people think that all teenagers should be required to do unpaid work in their free time to help the local community.
Do you agree or disagree? If you don't fully answer the question, it's extremely difficult to get a band 7. Just state your opinion and give reasons.
Today I'll show you how to write a 'disagree' essay for this question: They believe this would benefit both the individual teenager and society as a whole. Here's my 4-paragraph plan: First reason: Second reason: Plan your overall essay structure ideally 4 paragraphs 2. Spend some time thinking of ideas for the main body paragraphs Here are two recent exam questions that you could try writing a plan for: The main reason people go to work is to earn money.
Many people prefer to rent a house rather than buying one. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of renting. Let's look at how to put some ideas together to make a paragraph. Here's the question: Ideas for one main paragraph: I agree that the majority of people work in order to earn money. Before taking any other factors into account, it is normal to first consider the salary that a particular post offers, and it is rare to hear of a person who happily takes a cut in pay when beginning a new job.
We all need money to pay for our basic necessities, such as accommodation, bills and food. Many adults also have families who depend on the wages they earn, and at the same time they are conscious of the need to save for the future. If we no longer needed money, I doubt most of us would choose to continue in our jobs. Describe the problem and suggest some solutions.
Ideas for describing the problem: There are two main reasons why plants and animals are disappearing. Firstly, in many parts of the world trees are being cut down to make way for farmland on which to grow crops and keep animals. Secondly, human activity is also responsible for the destruction of aquatic life as domestic and industrial waste is pumped into rivers and seas.
This chemical waste kills plants and fish, interrupting natural cycles and having a devastating effect on food chains. Just write 2 sentences: Let's look at how to do this for a "problem and solution" question: Describe some reasons for this problem and suggest some solutions. Here's my introduction: It is undeniable that wildlife habitats are being destroyed and whole species of plants and animals are disappearing. There are several causes of this alarming trend, but measures could certainly be taken to tackle the problem.
In the second sentence you don't need to give any causes or solutions; save your ideas for the main paragraphs. Today I'll use the same technique 2 sentences: Successful sports professionals can earn a great deal more money than people in other important professions.
Some people think this is fully justified while others think it is unfair. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. Here's my 2-sentence introduction: It is true that sports stars often earn huge salaries. While there are some good reasons why this is the case, I personally believe that it is wrong for these people to be paid more than other professionals.
In many countries nowadays, young single people no longer stay with their parents until they are married, but leave to study or work somewhere else.
Do you think this trend has more advantages or disadvantages? Here are some tips to help with this kind of question: Notice that the question includes the words "do you think".
This tells you that you need to give your own opinion, as well as discussing both the advantages and disadvantages. Put your opinion in the introduction and conclusion, and don't be afraid to use the word "I" e. I believe to make it clear what you think. You won't be able to write a good essay if you don't plan your ideas first. Spend minutes noting down ideas for the advantages of leaving home before marriage, then minutes writing notes for the disadvantages. Then decide what your opinion is, according to whether you have more advantages or disadvantages.
If you can't think of any ideas, start by thinking of some examples e. Did you or any of your friends leave home before getting married? Do you know anyone who lived with their parents until they got married? What were the reasons and benefits or drawbacks of each decision? Please note that these are suggestions, not rules.
First 10 minutes Read the question and make sure you understand what it is asking you to do. Write a plan for a 4-paragraph essay introduction, 2 main paragraphs, conclusion and spend most of the 10 minutes thinking of ideas for the 2 main paragraphs. These are they most important part of your essay, and the key to a high score. Last 5 minutes Write a quick conclusion then check your work.
I asked the students on my most recent one-day course to spend 10 minutes planning a question about whether the only purpose of prisons is to punish people. Here are the ideas that my students had: Paragraph 2: The role of prisons should be to punish criminals who have committed serious crimes. Training courses and education offered to prisoners are a waste of taxpayer's money. The student who sent me this question noticed that it contains two sub-topics: Should the role of prisons be to punish serious criminals, not petty criminals less serious criminals?
Are training courses and education a waste of money? Apparently there is a model essay for this question which only addresses the second sub-topic. I think that would be a mistake; you should try to answer all parts of the question. In this case, the two sub-topics help you because they tell you what you should write about in your two main body paragraphs.
Always study the question carefully, and make sure you know exactly what it is asking you to do! The examiners' band descriptor sheet states that a band 7 essay "presents a clear position throughout the response". A "clear position" means that your opinion must be clear if the question asks for it , and "throughout the response" means from the beginning to the end of your essay. For this reason, it's a bad idea to save your opinion for the conclusion. We don't like 'surprise conclusions' in English academic writing.
Instead, you should state your position in the introduction, support it in your main paragraphs, and repeat or summarise it in the conclusion. Look at the following introduction and conclusion for an essay about whether it is better for students to work alone or in a group: Introduction People have different views about the most effective way for students to work.
While there are some advantages to studying alone, I personally believe that group work is usually more productive. Conclusion In conclusion, both individual and group study can be useful under different circumstances, but I generally prefer to work with others as part of a team. Notice that my 'position' is clear in the introduction, so the conclusion simply repeats my view in a different way. Try to correct the mistakes that they made in the sentences below.
I'll share my full essay next week. We have different types of music all over the world, we need music for various reasons. The first I think we need music almost for enjoyment. People listening to a variety of music is due to a number of reasons. It is clear cut evidence why we need for music. Traditional music of a country has more weight that the famous international music.
At a glance, we need music for enjoyment. The people is more happier listening all kind the rhythms and sounds than without it. It helps to make relaxed from any sort of strain.
If the international music would replace it then the whole historical experience of a country will die. Native speakers have a large repertoire of these word groups, and can use them without thinking. Language learners need to build their own repertoire of collocations through reading and listening, and by noticing word groups that commonly occur.
Here are some collocations from the essay I wrote last week: For example, the collocations in last week's lesson came from an essay about music, but maybe we can use them for other topics. As an example, I'll choose the topic of education, and I'll write a couple of sentences around some of the collocations underlined from last week: In primary schools, more importance should be given to creativity and problem solving, and these skills should be valued over memorisation and rote learning.
Creativity can be fostered by exposing children to a rich variety of media, and by encouraging them to express their emotions. You only need to write two sentences in order to do two things: Introduce the topic.
Respond to the question, making your position clear. Take this question from last week's lesson: More houses are needed in many countries to cope with increasing populations. Would it be better to build houses in existing towns and cities, or to develop new towns in rural areas? It is true that the populations of many countries are growing, and that new housing is therefore needed. In my opinion, it would be better to increase the provision of housing by creating new towns, rather than by further developing existing towns and cities.
Students often tell me that they are stuck on the same writing score. For example, they keep getting 6. If you are stuck in a rut like this, perhaps the most effective way to get out of it is to give more importance to your essay plan. I tell my students to spend around 3 minutes making notes for each main body paragraph. The act of planning helps you to separate the task of idea generation from the task of writing.
It's extremely difficult to do both of these things at the same time. What problems will this cause for individuals and society? Suggest some measures that could be taken to reduce the impact of ageing populations. You don't need to mention any specific problems or solutions in your introduction and conclusion. These paragraphs can be short, easy and general. Remember that the main paragraphs are much more important in terms of your score. Example introduction It is true that people in industrialised nations can expect to live longer than ever before.
Although there will undoubtedly be some negative consequences of this trend, societies can take steps to mitigate these potential problems. Example conclusion In conclusion, various measures can be taken to tackle the problems that are certain to arise as the populations of countries grow older.
The topic of this paragraph is "the problems caused by increasing life expectancy". Here's the plan I wrote: As people live longer and the populations of developed countries grow older, several related problems can be anticipated. The main issue is that there will obviously be more people of retirement age who will be eligible to receive a pension. The proportion of younger, working adults will be smaller, and governments will therefore receive less money in taxes in relation to the size of the population.
In other words, an ageing population will mean a greater tax burden for working adults. Further pressures will include a rise in the demand for healthcare, and the fact young adults will increasingly have to look after their elderly relatives.
It would be easy to write more by adding an example such as healthcare costs like more hospital beds and medical staff , but I've already written words, which is enough for one main paragraph. In the developed world, average life expectancy is increasing. It is true that people in industrialised nations can expect to live longer than ever before.
There are several actions that governments could take to solve the problems described above. Firstly, a simple solution would be to increase the retirement age for working adults, perhaps from 65 to Nowadays, people of this age tend to be healthy enough to continue a productive working life. A second measure would be for governments to encourage immigration in order to increase the number of working adults who pay taxes.
Finally, money from national budgets will need to be taken from other areas and spent on vital healthcare, accommodation and transport facilities for the rising numbers of older citizens.
In conclusion, various measures can be taken to tackle the problems that are certain to arise as the populations of countries grow older.
Although it's obviously important to practise writing full essays, there are other things that I think you should be doing. Here are some study ideas for writing task 2: Or challenge yourself to write 3 different main-body paragraphs about "advantages" e. Or write 5 different conclusions - just one sentence each, summarising your response to 5 different questions. Write the questions on a piece of paper, decide what the general topic is for each one e. Don't worry about the exact question, just try to "collect" good ideas and vocabulary for the overall topic.
A quick search on Google or Wikipedia should give you what you need. A big problem for some students is that they don't have well-formed opinions. They're not sure what to write about topics like homeschooling, immigration or gun control. The good news is that there is no 'correct' opinion - the examiner is only looking at how well you express your opinions in English.
So, after doing some research see point 2 above , make sure you have an opinion of your own.
Although, tourism has many benefits, but it also has some drawbacks. Many people believe that, parents should be strict. Now look at the correct sentences: Although tourism has many benefits, it also has some drawbacks. Many people believe that parents should be strict. By doing this, you can cover a range of topics without needing to search for questions in books or on the Internet.
You can also keep the questions clear and simple. Let's write 3 questions about 'population growth' yesterday's listening topic: Discussion question The populations of many countries are increasing rapidly. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this trend. Opinion question Many people believe that it is time to limit population growth. Problem and solution The populations of many countries are increasing rapidly. Explain what problems this trend may cause, and suggest some possible solutions.
You should express your opinion in the introduction, and support it in the rest of the essay. Introduction 2. Paragraph supporting the opposite opinion 3. Paragraph supporting my opinion 4. Conclusion The problem with this essay structure is that paragraph 2 is not consistent with my opinion.
Think of it this way: Each paragraph should defend youropinion. You can write about both sides of the argument if you say that you "partly agree". Go to this lesson to see some suggestions for essay structures.
Some people prefer to spend their lives doing the same things and avoiding change.
Others, however, think that change is always a good thing. Here's one of the main body paragraphs: There are good reasons why some people feel the need to make significant changes to their lives from time to time. Firstly, any new situation that a person encounters can be an opportunity to learn and grow as a person. A new job, for instance, might present challenges that push the person to adapt, acquire new knowledge, or add to their skill set.
Secondly, a change can represent a break with the past and an old routine which has become boring and predictable. Finally, as well as making life more fun and interesting, new experiences can be good for our physical and mental health. Analyse this paragraph carefully.
What can you learn from it in terms of structure, ideas, vocabulary and grammar? Topic sentence 2. Firstly 3. Secondly 5. Finally I think this is a good way to organise a paragraph. However, it's best not to use the same structure twice in one essay.
Compare the two paragraphs below. How did I structure the second one to avoid repeating "Firstly, Secondly, Finally"?
First main paragraph There are good reasons why some people feel the need to make significant changes to their lives from time to time. A new job, for instance, might present challenges that push the person to adapt, acquire new knowledge, or add to his or her skill set.
Second main paragraph On the other hand, it is understandable why people might avoid change. Whenever people are forced to change their lifestyles, jobs or even to move house, they are likely to experience stress and worry as they try to adapt to the new situation. By contrast, we feel comfortable and confident when we stay with what we know. The decision to persist with a course of action or stick to one chosen path often leads to greater success in life. For example, by staying in the same job for many years, a person can become an expert in his or her field, which will lead to better opportunities for promotions and career progression.
Recently a few people have asked me whether writing a longer introduction could be the way to improve their task 2 scores. My answer is no! A longer introduction is more likely to harm your score, not help it.
The more time you spend on your introduction, the less time you have to write good main body paragraphs. The main body is the key to a high score! So, how can we improve our main body paragraphs? I think there are 3 easy steps you can take: Spend more time planning and writing the main paragraphs. Spend less time on the introduction and conclusion.
Prepare ideas for common topics before you take the exam. Marriages are bigger and more expensive nowadays than in the past. Why is this the case?
Is it a positive or negative development? First, we can introduce the topic by paraphrasing the question statement: It is true that weddings have become more costly and extravagant in recent years. Second, I need a short, simple answer to both parts of the question: There are several reasons for this, and in my view it is a negative trend. We spent 10 minutes planning, then we wrote half of the essay together: It is true that the top sports people earn incredibly high salaries.
Although reasons can be given to justify this, I personally believe that sports stars should be paid much less. There are several reasons why some people support high incomes in sport. Firstly, people who reach the highest levels in any sport must be uniquely talented. For example, it is rare to find someone with the football skills of Messi or Ronaldo, and it can be argued that these players deserve salaries that reflect their abilities.
Finally, sports salaries are only high because audiences and fans are willing to pay to watch their favourite stars. The main reason why these two paragraphs are good is that we planned them carefully. We spent time thinking about the question, making notes, and organising our ideas in a logical way. Let's try this with the introduction I wrote last week. Introduction It is true that the top sports people earn incredibly high salaries.
Conclusion loosely paraphrasing the introduction In conclusion, I do not accept the argument that sports professionals deserve to be paid so much more than people who do other important jobs. Notice that I wrote "loosely paraphrasing" I paraphrased the overall idea, rather than word for word. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages.
Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages? Is this a positive or negative development? What are the benefits and drawbacks? Discuss both sides of the issue, but don't give an opinion about which side you agree with. Give your opinion and support it.
If you have a strong opinion, you don't need to mention the other side of the argument. Discuss both sides and make your opinion clear too. Here goes: First, when I say 'band 7 vocabulary', I'm talking about vocabulary that could help you to get a band 7 or higher. There is no list of band 7 vocabulary that you can use in any essay. For example, a phrase like "delay the development of a child's first language" would be band 7 vocabulary, but a linking word like "moreover" would not.
Examiners are looking for 'less common' vocabulary. They wouldn't expect many students to write "delay the development of a child's first language", so this phrase would impress them. Remember that we are not looking for 'big' words that are difficult to understand. We are looking for groups of words used naturally and accurately together.
The phrase "delay the development of a child's first language" is easy to understand, but not many students would think to use it. Read the lesson again, then study the paragraph below.
Which words or phrases in the following paragraph might be considered 'band 7 or higher'? It is true that there are some disadvantages to learning a foreign language at primary school age. The main problem is that young children need to study other subjects which can be considered as more important than a second language. The core subjects in most primary schools are the mother tongue language, mathematics and science, and it can be argued that lessons in a new language take valuable study time away from these key disciplines, as well as causing confusion in the young learners.
Here's how I structure a 4-paragraph essay for this kind of question: Introduction 2 sentences: I often begin with the phrase "People have different views about I often use the word "although" in this sentence e. Although there are good arguments in favour of The first view 3. The second view I make it clear that I agree with this view 4.
I'll choose one question to look at next week. I've chosen a question shared by JK: Nowadays animal experiments are widely used to develop new medicines and to test the safety of other products. Some people argue that these experiments should be banned because it is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, while others are in favour of them because of their benefits to humanity.
Here are the steps I would take to answer this question: I would start by writing down some arguments for and against animal testing. I covered this topic in my ebook chapter 2 , so I already have some good ideas in my head. Looking at the ideas you wrote down, you need to make a decision. A good 'middle point' might be that animal experiments should only be used for the most important medical research.
Always stick to the 4-paragraph structure; you don't need an extra paragraph for your own view because you agree with elements of the two views stated in the question. Keep your introduction and conclusion short.
Spend most of your time on the main body paragraphs. Can you improve the sentences below? This essay examines both sides of views. The first reason, the lives of animals should be respected. Most people think animal testing is necessary but others are upset of these activities. On other hand for those who are opposed this type of research would stand on ethical issues.
Thanks to the researches on mice, scientists have known how to treat diseases. Here's my advice: The first step is to write better, not faster. If you can't get the score you need when it takes you 2 hours to write an essay, you won't be able to write a good essay in 40 minutes.
Click here to read about a student who started slowly and got faster with practice. The next step is to break the 40 minutes into smaller parts. For example, you could practise writing introductions in only 5 minutes. Don't work on full essays yet; just practise the parts according to my advice inthis lesson. Separate the 'thinking' from the 'writing'. I do all my thinking planning or brainstorming in the first 10 minutes. When I'm happy with my essay plan, I start writing.
I try to stick to my plan so that I can focus on writing rather than more thinking. Finally, remember that improvements happen gradually. You have to be prepared to do the hard work: Do the work and you'll get better and faster! Start with the main idea of the paragraph, explain it in more detail, then give an example.
A variation on this format is "idea, example, explain". Here's a paragraph that I wrote with my students about last week's topic: Some art projects definitely require help from the state. In the UK, there are many works of art in public spaces, such as streets or squares in city centres. In Liverpool, for example, there are several new statues and sculptures in the docks area of the city, which has been redeveloped recently.
These artworks represent culture, heritage and history. They serve to educate people about the city, and act as landmarks or talking points for visitors and tourists. Governments and local councils should pay creative artists to produce this kind of art, because without their funding our cities would be much less interesting and attractive.
Crime Police and Crime Prevention The job of the polices is to catch criminals They must also prevent crime and make communities safer There should be an increase in the number of police officers on the streets Police officers should be seen as part of the community They should be involved with education and prevention The police should be in close contact with schools They should focus on young people who have dropped out of school.
The mass media focus on violent and sensational crimes This lead to fear of crime among the public Sensational stories attract more viewers or readers The media report crime stories in order to increase their audience 5. They become more independent They are responsible for cooking, cleaning and paying bills They will learn a foreign language Drawback of studying abroad Living and studying abroad can be difficult Students have problems with paperwork such as visa applications The language barrier can be a problem Students have to find accommodation and pay bills Studying in a foreign language is challenging Living alone in an unfamiliar culture can cause homesickness Technology in Education: Disadvantages People rely too much on computers Young learners do not become proficient in some basic skills They use word processors and spelling may suffer People should be able to write a letter by hand Technology is no substitute for a real teacher Learners need a structured course An experienced teacher knows what materials to choose Computers are expensive to maintain and can be unreliable Technology in Education: Opinion Corporal Punishment is not a good idea Physical punishment is a way of controlling children using fear This does not promote trust between adults and children Children who are punished physically may become shy or resentful Corporal punishment creates an atmosphere of fear and anger Single Sex Education: Single-sex Education: There are collection banks for glass, paper and plastic bottles Households can use several rubbish bins to separate waste Recycling saves energy and raw materials.
Nuclear Power: Positives There are several benefits to build more nuclear power stations Fossil fuel like oil and gas are running out Nuclear power is a sustainable energy source It can be used to produce electricity without wasting natural resources It could be replace the use of natural resources like coal, oil or gas Nuclear power stations are cleaner than fossil fuel power stations They could help to reduce carbon emissions that cause global warming The risks of accidents are being reduced Nuclear Power: Opinion The best form of care for the elderly depends on the family situation It depends on whether family members have the time resources We all have a responsibility towards the older people in our society Governments should invest money in facilities and training for care workers.
Scientists may use genetic engineering to cure diseases. Advantages Farmers can produce crops that grow bigger and faster Some GM crops are more resistant to disease or insects This could be important for food production in developing countries Faster growing cereals, fruit and vegetables will mean more profit GM foods can be modified to look perfect They may be more attractive to customers Genetically-Modified GM Foods: Disadvantages There may be risks involved in the genetic engineering of foods.
Opinion Governments can censor what public sees or reads in the media To a certain extent censorship is necessary We should use censorship to protect children from violent images Some computer games involve killing people or committing crimes The Internet also needs to be controlled Many websites show pornography and violence There should be age limits for websites and computers games Parents need to take responsibility for checking what their children watch It is impossible for governments to control everything we see Video cameras in public places The use of CCTV is becoming widespread Video cameras have been installed in many public places They are supposed to protect us and deter criminals Many people think that this surveillance violates our privacy The authorities could build databases with our pictures and identities We should not be treated like criminals Smart cards: Negatives Many people are worried about losing their privacy Governments could store all our personal and medical information This information could be used by insurance companies Employers could check our health records People with Disabilities People with disabilities should be treated the same as everybody else They should have the same rights as other people They should have access to the same jobs as other citizens Discriminations against disabled people is illegal in many countries Ramps and lifts for wheelchairs should be installed in public buildings Support teacher can be employed to help children with learning difficulties Guns and Weapons Why guns should be legal: In some countries, people are allowed to own firearms Individuals have the right to protect themselves People can use guns in self defence This deters criminals Why gun ownership should be illegal: Positives The export of arms, or weapons, is an extremely controversial issue Governments of rich, industrialized countries sell arms to each other This industry creates jobs and wealth The trade of weapons may improve relationships between governments Arms Trade: Negatives Weapons may be used in conflicts and wars The supply of arms could be responsible for deaths Governments are promoting war in order to make a profit Rich countries can influence the politics of other nations Nuclear weapons Nuclear weapons are capable of destroying whole cities A nuclear war between two countries would destroy both countries Nuclear weapons are used as a deterrent They prevent wars from starting Nuclear weapons: Opinion Nuclear weapons should be prohibited Governments should limit the production of nuclear weapons There is a danger of nuclear weapons being obtained by terrorists Nuclear weapons cannot be used against terrorist organizations Armed Forces: Positives Armed forces provide security and protection They deter military attack by another country They can also be sued to maintain peace within countries They can be sued to give the police extra support Soldiers are also used to help in emergency situations, such as after a natural disaster Armed forces: Positives People are increasingly using alternative medicines to treat illnesses.
For example, acupuncture can be used to treat backache Herbal medicines can be used to treat allergies or viruses Many patients report positive experiences with these treatments Some traditional cures have been used for hundreds of years Alternative medicine: Modern glass buildings take advantage if natural light Language English as an international language English is widely used around the world It is becoming a global second language It is the dominant language of technology, science and international business International business meetings are regularly held in English The most important textbooks and journals are published in English The ability to speak English is a necessary skill in the modern world Negative of English as an International Language If one language is dominant, other languages may disappear The dominant language brings its own culture American culture has become popular around the world Other cultures may be damaged As an alternative to English, a new global language could be invented It would have no nationality or culture attached to it This could help to promote international peace and understanding Esperanto is an example of a language that was invented with this aim Society does not seem to value these professions as highly as professional sport Sports salaries should be compatible with the wages most people earn Opinion: These events attract investment and create jobs.
The Olympic Games are an advertisement for the host nation They attract huge numbers of visitors and sports fans Wealthy countries tend to hold these events Developing countries should be given the chance to become hosts