View RANGKUMAN + TIPS KILAT mmoonneeyy.info from BIOCHEM 7 at Oxnard College. 16 GRAMMER E~BOOK 1 Tenses merupakan perubahan kata kerja dalam. telah dilimpahkan-Nya sehinnga diktat/materi satu materi pegangan mahasiswa dalam . Kata bantu Do (do, does, did) dipakai pada tensis simple tense. Present Perfect Continuous (Progressive) Tense Subyek + has/have + been + verb ing a. Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang telah mulai.
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2. TENSES. Tenses adalah perubahan kata kerja yang dipengaruhi oleh waktu dan sifat kejadian. Semua kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris tidak lepas dari tenses. Modul ini memuat ringkasan materi bahasa Inggris dengan didikuti latihan- dasar kalimat bahasa Inggris, words, phrases,, clauses, tenses. Pengertian dan Fungsi Tenses. 2. Ruang lingkup materi. • Simple Tenses. Past. Present. Future. V2. V1 will + V1. Tobe2+ving. V ing tobe1 + going + to + V1 .
She had to leave for Jakarta last week. She was here yesterday 7. Present Tense am, is, are 2. The car broke down. General Truth It is also used to make generalizations about people or things. Study these examples:
Who is Ali beating? Who is being beaten by Ali? Present Perfect Tense Contoh: Ahmad has written a letter. A letter has been written by Ahmad. Has Ahmad written a letter? Has a letter been written by Ahmad? Who has written a letter? Who has a letter been written by? What has written by Ahmad? What has been written by Ahmad? Who has beaten Ali? Whi has Ali beaten? Who has Ali beaten?
Who has been beaten by Ali? Past Tense Contoh: Ahmad wrote a letter. A letter was written by Ahmad.
Did Ahmad write a lette? Was a letter written by Ahmad? Who wrote a letter? Who was a letter written by? What did Ahmad write? What was written by Ahmad? Who beat Ali? Who was Ali beaten by? Who did Ali beat? Who was beaten by Ali? Past Continuous Tense Contoh: Ahmad was writin g Pasif: Ahmad was being written by Ahmad.
Was Ahmad writing a letter? Was a letter being written by Ahmad? Who was writing a letter? Who was a letter being written by? What was Ahmad writing? What was being written by Ahmad? Who was beating Ali? Who was Ali being beaten beaten by? Who was Ali beating? Who was being beaten by Ali? STT Ibnu Sina 6. Past Perfect Tense Contoh: Ahmad had written a letter. A letter had been written by Ahmad.
Had Ahmad written a letter? Had a letter been written by Ahmad? Who had written a letter?
Who had a letter been written by? What had Ahmad written? What had been written by Ahmad? Who had beaten Ali? Who had Ali been beaten by?
Who had Ali beaten? Who had been beaten by Ali? Future Tense Contoh: Ahmad will write a letter. Ahmad will be written by Ahmad. Ahmad will not write a letter. A letter will not be written by Ahmad. Will Ahmad write a letter? Will a letter be written by Ahmad? Who will write a letter? Who will a letter be written by? What will Ahmad write?
What will be written by Ahmad? Who will beat Ali? Who will Ali be beaten by? Who will Ali beat? Who will be beaten by Ali? STT Ibnu Sina 8. Future Perfect Tense Contoh: Ahmad will have written a letter. A letter will have been written by Ahmad. Ahmad will not have written by Ahmad.
A letter will not have been written by Ahmad. Will Ahmad have written a letter? Will a letter have been written by Ahmad? Who will have written a letter? Who will a letter have been written by? What will have Ahmad written? What will have been written by Ahmad? Who will have beaten Ali? Who will Ali have been beaten by? Who will Ali have beaten? Who will have been beaten by Ali? We can solve this problem. This problem can be solved by us. Can we solve this problem? Can this problem be solved by us?
Who can solve this problem? Who can this problem be solved by? What can we do? What can be done by us? Modal Perfect. Somebody should have waited Amir this morning. Amir should have been waited this morning. Who should have waited Amir? Who should Amir have been waited by? Where should we have waited Amir? Where should Amir have been waited by us? He could have written two books. Two books could have been written by him. Who could have written two books? Who could two books have been written by?
When could he have written two books? When could two books have been written by him. Saya terbangunkan oleh suara gaduh itu. I was wake up by that noise. Saya heran terkejut melihat dia. I was surprised to see him.
He was interested in foreign language. He was accustomed to cold weather. Kita terbiasa dengan musim dingin. Kadang-kadang bentuk aktif terutama infinitive sering mempunyai arti atau dimaksudkan untuk menyatakan keadaan pasif. This book is easy to understand. Buku ini mudah untuk dipahami. He has a large family to support. Dia mempunyai keluarga besar yang harus dibantu.
I have bought a new book to read. Saya telah membeli sebuah buku baru untuk dibaca. There are many problems to solve. There are many difficulties to overcome. Jika dalam kalimat aktif terdapa dua object, maka kedua-duanya dapat dijadikan subject dalam kalimat pasif. He gave me a book. I was given a book by him. A book was given to me by him.
She is bringing them a parcel. They were being brought a parcel by her. A parcel was being brought to them by her. There is a clear line or chain of command running down the pyramid. All the people in the organization know what decisions they are able to make, who their superior or boss is to whom they report , and who their immediate subordinates are or whom they can give instruction. Some people in an organization have colleague who help them: This known as staff position: Yet the activities of most companies are too complicated to be organized in a single hierarchy, shortly before the first world war, the French Industrialist Henry Fayol organized his coal-mining business according to the function that it had to carry out.
He is generally credited with inventing functional organization. Today, most large manufacturing organization have a functional structure, include among others. Production, finance, marketing, sales and personnel or human resources department, this means, for example that the production and marketing department cannot take financial decision without consulting the finance department.
Exercise 1. Read the whole text and then complete the organization chart: I think we have a fairly typical organization for a manufacturing firm. The Human Resources department is the simplest. It consists of two sections. One is responsible for recruitment and personnel matters, the other is in charge of training. The Marketing department is made up of three sections: Sales, Sales Promotion, and Advertising, whose heads are all accountable to the marketing manager.
The Production department consists of five sections. The first of these is Production Control, which is in charge of both Scheduling and Materials Control. Manufacturing contains three sections: Tooling, Assembly, and Fabrication. Finance is composed of two sections: We can create a planetary information network that transmits messages and images with the speed of light from the largest city to the smallest village on every continent.
To accomplish this purpose, legislators, regulators and businesspeople must build and operate a Global Information Infrastructure. Public awareness about telecommunications has probably never been higher and buzzwords such as 'multimedia' and 'information superhighway' appear on the front pages of many national newspapers, bought by readers In shops from which they have difficulty in emerging through the roadworks brought about by the installation of cable networks and optical fibre systems under the pavement.
The Information Superhighways arc high-rate, interactive networks capable of transporting any kind of information: STT Ibnu Sina many They will concern the following activities: Pengertian Question Ta adalah suatu kata atau ungkapan yang digunakan oleh seseorang untuk memberikan pernyataan dan meminta orang lain yang diajak bicara, setuju atau menyetujui dengan pendapatnya.
Ali cannot speak English, can he? She will not go home, will she? We are not happy, are we? Pedoman 3 Kata yang dapat diginakan dalam question tags, hanyalah: I, you, she, he, it, we, they, dan there. Everything, nothing, this. This film is not good, is it? Nobody called on the phone, did they?
Nobody was watching me, were they? STT Ibnu Sina Pedoman 4 Dalam kalimat verbal pedikatnya berupa kata kerja yang berbentuk simple present dan past tense, tambahkan do, does atau did, untuk membuat question tags-nya. Pedoman 5 Bila dalam suatu kalimat ada auxiliary dan modal, maka question tags-nya dibuat dengan auxilary atau modal yang terletak paling depan paling dekat dengan subjeknya.
Pedoman 6 Dalam pernyataan: I am…. Bandingkan dengan kalimat berikut ini: I am not a doctor, am I? I am not ready, am I? Pedoman 7 Kata-kata yang mempunyai arti negatif not atau setengah negatif, questiqn tagnya selalu positif. She never goes to the movies, does she? You seldom get up early, do you? They hardly ever go to town, do they? Pedoman 8 Bentuk question tag khusus yang digunakan untuk menyatakan: Perintah, baik positif atau negatif melarang question tag-nya adalah: Stop that noise, will you?
Give me a hand, will you? Ajakan dengan: Pedoman 9 Untuk kalimat majemuk, maka question tagnya dibuat berdasarkan kalimat utamanya. The word business also refers to an organization that provides these goods and services. Most businesses seek to make a profit - that is, they aim to achieve revenues that exceed the costs of operating the business. However, some businesses only seek to earn enough to cover their operating costs.
Commonly called nonprofits, these organizations are primarily nongovernmental service providers. Examples of nonprofit businesses include such organizations as social service agencies, foundations, advocacy groups, and many hospitals.
Business Operations A variety of operations keep businesses, especially large corporations, running efficiently and effectively. Common business operation divisions include 1 production, 2 marketing, 3 finance, and 4 human resource management 1. Production includes those activities involved in conceptualizing, designing, and creating products and services. In recent years there have been dramatic changes in the way goods are produced.
Marketing is the process of identifying the goods and services that consumers need and want and providing those goods and services at the right price, place, and time. Businesses develop marketing strategies by conducting research to determine what products and services potential customers think they would like to be able to purchase.
Finance involves the management of money. All businesses must have enough capital on hand to pay their bills, and for-profit businesses seek extra capital to expand their operations. STT Ibnu Sina cases, they raise long-term capital by selling ownership in the company.
Businesses rely on effective human resource management HRM to ensure that they hire and keep good employees and that they are able to respond to conflicts between workers and management. Discuss the following questions 1. What is the difference between for-profit and non-profit organizations? Support your answer with relevant examples.
What is production? What is marketing? What does the HRM involve? How do you see your future profession? Please answer the following questions: What kind of work are you interested in: Well paid work 2. Interesting work 3. Work in a large and famous company 4.
Quiet work 5. Work in an industry which has future prospects 6. A kind of work such as not to sit the whole day in the office 7. To travel a lot Please, discuss advantages and disadvantages of your future profession: Do you think that your future profession is prestigious? Do you think it will be still prestigious and well paid by the time you graduate? How difficult is it to find a good work in your field? Is there a competition in your group?
Do you think that competition among your coeds is a good stimulus to study well or it just makes communication between you more difficult? The top ten suppliers remained the same, as the chart shows. Behind this apparent similarity, however, lies a rapidly changing situation for telecoms suppliers both large and small.
They have been affected by the massive developments taking place in three major areas: By the voice market will be open to competition in most of the European union eu , and the same trend is occurring in the rest of the world. One effect of this trend has been to break the comfortable relationship that the main national telecom operator usually had with one large national supplier. The operators must compete in their own markets on cost, so their purchasing policy is to buy from virtually any supplier who can meet their constantly changing demands — at the right price.
And the suppliers themselves are keen to break into new, potentially lucrative markets. Operators and suppliers alike find themselves in a new business environment which is full threats — and of wonderful new opportunities. The ICE age is coming back. Technology, developing increasingly fast, is bringing together the previously separate industries of information.
So telecoms suppliers have to be ready with total solutions; and be ready to develop — or buy in — new skills and competencies in a range of activities which were previously of only limited interest to them.
At the same time, equipment is becoming more and more user friendly, so It can be understood more quickly by client and supplied more and more easily by the manufacture.
STT Ibnu Sina other ways. Service, speed and innovation can be more attractive than pure technical background. The market Globalization has seen the growth of major alliances of telecom operators across international borders, to help the increasing number of companies, large and small, which need to communicate ever wide geographical areas. So, the characteristics and size of the suppliers typical costumer are constantly changing.
The capacity to deal with and adapt to such an unprecedented degree of change in these areas is what will determine the relative success of the telecom suppliers of the future. What do these words mean in Indonesian?
Use a dictionary to check. There are many adjectives ending in —ing and —ed. For example, boring and bored. Study this example situation: Jane has been doing the same job for a very long time. Every day she does exactly the same thing again and again. Jane is bored with her job. Somebody is bored if something or somebody else is boring. Or, if something is boring, it makes you bored. Compare adjectives ending in —ing and —ed: You can say: The —ing adjective tells you about the etc.
The —ed adjective tells you how somebody feels about the job. Compare these examples: I Disappointed expected it to be much better.
Complete the sentences for each situation. I hate this weather. She has never been there before. I had expected it to be better. I enjoyed it. Complete the sentences using one of the words in the box. It was really. I seldom visit art galleries. I fell asleep. He can be very. Liz is a very. Look at these examples: Quickly and seriously are adverbs.
Some adjectives end in —ly too, for example: Adjective or adverb? We use adjectives us about a verb. An adverb tells us before nouns and after some verbs, how somebody does something or especially be: Compare these sentences with look: We also use adverbs before adjective and other adverbs.
For example: Complete the sentences with adverbs. The first letter s of each adverb are given. I had little difficulty finding a place to live. I found a flat quite ea. We waited pa. Nobody knew George was coming to see us. He arrived unex. Put in the right word. Complete each sentences using a word from the list. Sometimes you need the adjective careful etc. The time passed very quickly.
Sue works. Choose two words one from each box to complete each sentence. The car was only. The adverb is well: Jack can run very fast. Ann works hard.
I got up this morning. Study these examples: She hardly spoke to me. They hardly know each other. He hardly tried to fine one. Hardly any. Hardly anybody in our class passed. I can hardly read it. I could hardly walk. I hardly ever go out. Put in good or well. Are you. They were well-behaved. She quite. It is very. Your diet should be. Ann knows a lot about many things. He is always. Are the underlined words right or wrong? Correct the ones that are wrong. She hits the ball hardly. Are you tired?
Write sentences with hardly. Use one of the following verbs in the correct form: I can. Kate was very quiet this evening. There was.
As monopoly becomes a thing of the past, the market is thrown open to anybody who wants to complete — and the costumer is at last able to choose the supplier she or he wants.
There are three main groups of competitors in the brave new world: Public telephone operators PTOs , who once monopolized the supply of lines and of most equipment, now are just another — if privileged — supplier of both. Equipment manufactures, who used to supply mainly to the PTOs, now can, in many cases, supply direct to the customer. Services providers, including computer companies supplying sophisticated switches and value-added services, find an increase market for their product as telecoms become a vital strategies business tool.
Who is the customer? A customer-focused business must first know who the customer is. In telecoms four main types of customer are emerging. Multi-national companies operating across national frontiers, and using sophisticated and high-capacity networks for the transfer of voice, image, data and television. Residential customers, the ordinary citizens usually using one telephone line for basic telephony, but increasingly aware of the enormous potential of telecommunications for work and leisure.
Public administration. The customer is now the focus of all attention in the telecoms business. Operators, manufactures and service providers alike have to change the way they work, in order to succeed in the new business environment. And none more so than the operators, many of whom were once government departments acting like bureaucrats, responding to legislation rather than to the market.
If competition had not been forced upon them, many might still be acting in the same way today. I think I left my watch at your house. Have you seen it? In this example, Ann feels there is a real possibility that she will find the watch. So she says: If I find.
This is a different type of situation. If I found. But the meaning is not past: We do not normally use would in the if-part of these sentence: Could and might are also possible: Do not use when in sentences like those on this page: Put the verb into the correct form. They would be disappointed if we. You ask a friend questions. Use what would you do if. What would you do if you won a lot of money? Answer the questions in the way shown. Shall we catch the Is Ken going to take the examination?
Is Sally going to apply for the job? Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. Would you go to the party if. Would you mind if. Three kinds of barrier deny the majority of the world access to the new information sources. Economic factors are the most important. Many people live and work in places lacking the necessary communications to make links with other users.
It can take three days to place an international call from India to Bangladesh, and even then, the connection is often not good enough for the computer communications. Of the technical barriers, by far the most excluding is language: Finally, there are political question, which centre on access to affective education and training to enable people to use the technology…in particular, the notion that computer technology has a greater bias towards men.
As one commentator summarized the situation: Although the number of subscriber lines installed over the past ten years has been the second highest in the world as a region, Africa also holds the global record for the fastest-growing population.
Each square represents a country and the overwhelming concentration in the bottom left-hand corner represents the very low teledensity in the poorer countries. Economists think that it should be relatively easy to increase teledensity for low-income countries. According to the ITU, this fact suggest that: But are the investors listening?
The changes ahead stem primarily from two groundbreaking Internet innovations: When a Web-user selects a highlighted word on a screen, hypertext quickly connects the computer directly to the proper information source … no matter where in the world it resides. We- browsing softwareis doing for the Internet what Macintosh and Windows did for persnal computing … making it easier, lively and fun for ordnary users. Thousands of schools, libraries, business and ordinary indivisuals are making off territory in cyberspace.
In , MCI one of the three major long- distance carriers in the US whose telephone networks already easy-to-install software, a Web browser, a virtaul shopping-center and a business consulting service.
But there are likely to be a few problems. STT Ibnu Sina computer and a modem can become a self-publisher with global distribution? Unscrupulous dealers in pornographic material have already used Internet, while there are also likely to be problems with data security and a boom in computer crime.
As the Net opens its doors, the real world will come rushing in. Language Development A. We often use verbs with the following words: For examples: The car broke down. I was nervous as the plane took off. How did you get on? Sometimes a phrasal verb is followed by a preposition. Sometimes a phrasal verb has an object. Usually there are two possible positions for the object. I turned it off. Why did the police break it down? Complete the sentences using one of these phrasal verbs in the correct form: The car broke down on the way here.
When are you. I sat in an armchair and. I hope it. Complete the sentences using a word from list A and a word from list B. The robbers got. Would you like me to.. Complete the sentences. The children are asleep.
Nobody is watching it. I tried to calm. I was able to put. Meaning of Business Correspondence Communication through exchange of letters is known as correspondence. We communicate our feelings, thoughts etc.
A Businessman also writes and receives letters in his day to-day transactions, which may be called business correspondence.
Business correspondence or business letter is a written communication between two parties. Businessmen may write letters to supplier of goods and also receive letters from the suppliers.
Customers may write letters to businessmen seeking information about availability of goods, price, quality, sample etc. Thus, business letters may be defined as a media or means through which views are expressed and ideas or information is communicated in writing in the process of business activities.
Part of a Business Letter Different parts of a business letter- 1. Heading 2. Date 3. Reference 4. Inside Address 5. Subject 6. Salutation 7. Body of the letter 8. Complimentary close 9. Signature Enclosures Copy Circulation Post Script The essential parts of a business letter are as follows: Heading -The heading of a business letter usually contains the name and postal address of the business, E-mail address, Web-site address, Telephone Number, Fax Number, Trade Mark or logo of the business if any 2.
Date - The date is normally written on the right hand side corner after the heading as the day, month and years. Some examples are 28th Feb. STT Ibnu Sina 3. Reference- It indicates letter number and the department from where the letter is being sent and the year. It helps in future reference.
This reference number is given on the left hand corner after the heading. Inside address - This includes the name and full address of the person or the firm to whom the letter is to be sent.
This is written on the left hand side of the sheet below the reference number. Letters should be addressed to the responsible head e. Subject - It is a statement in brief, that indicates the matter to which the letter relates. It attracts the attention of the receiver immediately and helps him to know quickly what the letter is about.
For example, Subject: Your order No. Enquiry about Samsung television Subject: Fire Insurance policy 6. Salutation - This is placed below the inside address. It is usually followed by a comma ,. Various forms of salutation are: For addressing a firm or company. Body of the letter- This comes after salutation. This is the main part of the letter and it contains the actual message of the sender.
It is divided into three parts. In this part, attention of the reader should be drawn to the previous correspondence, if any. For example with reference to your letter no. It should be precise and written in clear words. Further, the sender should always look forward to getting a positive response. Arent you handsome? I am a deligent.
I am not a deligent. Am I a deligent? Am I not a deligent? Arent I a deligent? Its Patterns: Adjective We are smart. They do not play soccer Do they play soccer? Do they not play soccer?
Dont they play soccer? Noun We are student. He goes to school every day. He does not go to school every day. Does he go to school every day? Does he not go to school every day? Doesnt he go to school every day? Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. Does he play tennis? When does the train usually leave? Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things.
PTIQ is in Jaksel. Birds do not like milk. The sun rises in the west. Speakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with other scheduled events as well. Not, I am wanting to eat now. USE 5: Head line of Newspapaer or Megasine Example: Ch Watches 2.
Sh Washes 3. Ss Passes 4. X Mixes 5. O Goes o If its verb the and with Y and its before consonan. Y change with i then add es. Cry Cries 2. Study Studies o Other than above, add with s. I have a friend. His name is Hamsa. Hamsa is deligent student. He always gets up early. He always tidies up his bed every day.
I am very happy, because he always helps me solve my problem. Hamsa not only deligent but also good friend. Hamsa is smart student in class. He always gets good score in every subjet. All of lecturer like him. Beside that, Hamsa recites and memorises Al-quran each day. He is good moslem. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles.