Elektor Electronics magazine. You can download the archive of Elektor Electronics magazine free. Registration not required. Good quality. File format: pdf. Elektor's very own AndroPod interface board, which adds a serial TTL port and an RS port to Firmware%20Flash%mmoonneeyy.info Elektor Business Edition issue 2 / is published on 11 April to Elektor Gold members in print, and Elektor Green members as a pdf.
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OLED Displays Small low-power displays for DIY projects USB Programming Adaptor for ESP from the Espressif family, I'd like the ESP and ESP Elektor Video Olympics and the winners are • Universal USB Charge Controller ChipNo microcontroller, just 6 pins• Electromagnetic Interference from LED. from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc.,.. when something that was difficult to und Arduino Circuits and Projects Guide -.
With VFD tubes the anodes and grids are controlled by the electronics, instead of the cathodes as with Nixie tubes. You can download the archive of Elektor Electronics magazine free. Figure 3. From an operational perspective we specify flexibility. Link to download the archive of Elektor Electronics magazine:
If transistor breakdown does occur, that usually does not have dramatic consequences because the current is only a few milliamps, so the power dissipated by the transistor remains within limits . That is possible due to the small difference between the ignition voltage and the discharge sustain voltage of many but not all types of Nixie tubes .
Nice to know, but not really recommended. When they strike the phosphor, it emits light. With VFD tubes the anodes and grids are controlled by the electronics, instead of the cathodes as with Nixie tubes. Numitrons consist of several incandescent filaments enclosed in a glass envelope and arranged in the form of a seven-segment display.
Relatively small Numitrons can be driven. Nixie tubes can easily be multiplexed, and their brightness can be regulated using pulse width modulation. That is possible thanks to the operating principle based on gas discharge and the short ignition time. In some cases, mechanical resonance of the cathodes or the anode grid can occur, resulting in a whistling sound from the Nixie tubes. That occurs most often with relatively large Nixie tubes.
A Nixie tube is a gas discharge tube with a cold cathode. A VFD vacuum fluorescent display tube, by contrast, has a heated cathode. At the cathode, the potential difference causes thermal electrons to be emitted and accelerated. One of the most important tools or piece of test equipment, if you will in an electronics lab is the lab power supply. The circuit presented here is a general-purpose soft-start accessory for both homemade and commercial power supplies.
The simplest lab power supplies have an adjustable output voltage and ideally short-circuit protection. The better models also have adjustable output current limiting, and precise indication of the output voltage and current is a feature that should be present in any respectable lab power supply.
The power switch of the power supply is often used for this purpose, but if you do that very often it tends to shorten the lifetime of the electronics in the power supply. Switch Of course, you could simply place a robust switch — which means a switch able to withstand heavy currents and high voltages — between the output of the power supply and the connected load, but that option has a significant drawback: Furthermore, a switch does not solve another issue: The circuit presented here solves both issues at the same time.
Since the soft-start circuit is located between the existing lab power supply and the connected load, the power supply does not have to be switched on and off all the time. That prevents any current from flowing from the load back into the power supply. The task of IC2, a MAX from Maxim , is to raise the gate-source voltage of T1 and T2 above the threshold voltage, so that they start conducting. This is done with the aid of a charge pump that raises the gate-source voltage to approximately 9 V, which is more than enough to drive the FETs fully on with minimum on-state resistance.
Schematic diagram Figure 1 shows the full schematic diagram. There is a very good reason for using two FETs in series here instead. The circuit here is a source follower comparable to an emitter follower , in which the output follows the gate voltage minus the threshold voltage of the FETs.
If the gate voltage rises linearly, the output voltage will also rise linearly at exactly the same rate, until the output voltage is equal to the input voltage.
The complete schematic of the soft-start circuit, which is built around three Maxim ICs. Because many people are wary of the reliability and security of cloud storage, this article shows you how to create your personal cloud and its. How do you create a Cloud?
A cloud is made partly of hardware and partly of software. On the hardware side, I chose the Raspberry Pi platform equipped with a hard disk to be able to store a large number of files. Offered as an alternative to services like DropBox, ownCloud is a.
It offers the following characteristics: On the other hand, it has numerous advantages: To start, download the Raspbian image on the official Raspberry Pi site  and then install it. For this article, we used raspbian-stretch-lite. Follow the installation instructions from the official site, or refer to any of the numerous tutorials available on the internet.
Connect a screen and keyboard, then the power. Log in to the Raspberry Pi. The start the configuration of the board by typing the command: Figure 2. From the configuration menu, set the keyboard according to your language localisation.
I would advise to activate the SSH service. This will be useful for remote interventions on the board. The circuit diagram of the power supply is based on an LM switching regulator.
It is capable of supplying a current of 5 A maximum. Press Ctrl-O then enter to save the file, Ctrl-X to quit the editor. You could instead, if preferred, configure your router to always provide the same address to the IP au Raspberry Pi.
Then change the rights of this folder and mount the disk which, in our case, is called sda1. Its file system is ext4: Now we pass to the automatic mounting of the external hard disk on startup of the Raspberry Pi.
Take care not to make. To be compatible with the maximum number of laptop power supply blocks, our power supply card is equipped with a 2. For some blocks, it may be necessary to cut off the original plug and fit a male 2. Diode D1 protects the supply against wrong polarity of the input voltage. Regulator IC1 exists in two versions of output voltage: The output voltage is set by the ratio of the values of the resistors R2 and R3.
If a fixed 5-V. The two large electrolytic capacitors at the input serve to provide the extra current needed by the SATA hard disk at startup. The SPI bus connections got checked several times and were found to be correct so the problem must lurk in the data format. Sounds familiar? Enter the Platino Serial Bus Tester. Even though the more expensive oscilloscopes on the market can interpret certain digital signals formatted in a known way, like SPI, I2C or plain serial, a microcontroller can do this much bet-.
In this article we therefore present a Platino-based system that speaks and understands various serial protocols, and is intended as a debugging tool for serial communication busses. Multi-protocol one at a time: With these standards we cover a vast range of possible protocols. The popular protocols are present by default, while more exotic ones can be added later. From an operational perspective we specify flexibility.
As mentioned above we chose the Elektor Platino platform  fitted with a backlit alphanumerical display with four character lines, a rotary encoder, a pushbutton, a buzzer, and a tricolour LED as the basis for our project. Equipped with an ATmegaP microcontroller it has. If we load a suitable bootloader into the MCU the whole system becomes Arduino compatible and we can profit from the large number of Arduino libraries available online.
By adding timers it becomes even more flexible. Indeed, why limit the Wi-Fi Desktop Thermostat  to the desktop? As it is, the device is already capable of controlling the heating system in your home but if we add some features to it, it will be even better suited for this task. For instance, a timer, and especially one that can be programmed for every day of the week, is a great extension for. Besides adding timers we will also add the possibility to disable the temperature sensor to allow the thermostat to act as a pure timer with Internet connectivity.
Get the time from the Internet Barring egg timers and stopwatches, a timer needs to know the time. However, looking at the schematic of the thermostat you will not find a realtime clock or any other time-keeping device. A few years ago this was a lot of work, but since our thermostat software is built in the Arduino environment, adding NTP support Figure 1 is nothing more than copy-pasting an Arduino example into our code and adapt it a little.
However, considering that the user interface UI of the thermostat is a webpage, and because our ESPF module has lots of memory left, there is no reason to limit ourselves to just one preset. Like adding NTP support, creating multiple presets is just a little more work than copying and pasting the code for a single preset. For practical reasons we have limited the number of presets to seven. Up to seven timers can be programmed and as they run in parallel, they may overlap.
Setting several timers to activate on the same day is an option too, as is programming up to seven future events. All in all, the timers are pretty flexible. More than a thermostat Being a thermostat its output will only be switched on when the measured temperature satisfies certain criteria as.
Timer modes Each timer can be assigned to a day of the week, and for each timer the start and stop time can be set Figure 2. For a week this means setting up seven timers. However, if your working week is from Monday through Friday and your weekends are Saturday and Sunday, and if you can live with one preset. Note that daylight saving time DST must be set manually as it is not easily available from the Internet.
Three timers marked as active and programmed for workday-weekend use together with a one-month single-shot. If you want to optimize a heating system, you first have to record a wide variety of parameters continuously and precisely. Once you have this data, you can quickly assess the impact of even relatively small changes. Modern heating systems have a large number of configuration options for a bewildering array of parameters.
In many cases it is not clear or not easy to determine how these parameters affect the behavior of the system. Another complicating factor is the slow response of the system, which means it takes a fairly long time to determine the optimal configuration by adjusting the various settings.
In order to truly optimize the. Armed with this data, you can quickly see the effects of even relatively small changes. Although many heating system controllers including older. Most heating system controllers also lack a PC-compatible interface port.
The author therefore came up with the idea of directly acquiring the raw data from analog temperature sensors in the heating system and the states of the connected loads in the heating system.
The author therefore decided to develop a measuring system which can read in analog and digital signals, process them, and send them to a PC over a USB link. Even if you think your heating system is already working as well as it can or you do not have a complicated heating system, you may find this article useful because the basic concept is versatile.
For that reason, this article does not describe the system as a whole, but instead focuses on the details of its modular components. The concept The measuring system needs two or three different interfaces between the input parameters and the PC. They are linearized and supplied with 5 V power by a series resistor.
To determine whether any of these devices is operating, its supply voltage AC line voltage can be measured at the corresponding terminals. Of course, suitable safety measures must be taken for this.
To avoid potential confusion, these channels are not intended for the acquisition of analog measurement data — the objective is only to be able to acquire digital signals in this voltage range. All channels must be read cyclically by a microcontroller, and the analog voltage readings and digital states sent to a PC via USB.
Conversion and display of the measured data are to be performed on the PC. This concept has several advantages compared to other solutions. The acquisition process is universal, and no firmware changes are necessary for other applications or using other sensors. The circuit design should focus on robustness and reliability, since the measuring system will be installed for a prolonged period and must operate smoothly and reliably over this period.
Digital inputs There are two sorts of digital channels: To avoid additional components or conversions, for example with transformers, the inputs for AC line voltage are designed for simple connection in parallel with the load concerned. Using four resistors in series divides the voltage drop over each component accordingly, ensuring that the voltage on each resistor does not exceed its maximum rated breakdown voltage. The reverse-polarity diode in parallel with the optocoupler LED provides a current path for the negative half-cycles of the AC line voltage.
This eliminates the need for a diode with a high reverse voltage rating in series with the optocoupler LED to protect it against negative half-cycles. This arrangement results in a delay of several tens of milliseconds for switch-on and several hundred milliseconds for switch-off, which is not significant for the intended application with its slow response.
However, the layout must be designed to ensure compliance with the necessary and prescribed clearance and creep distances. This also applies between the individual channels. Electric current can be measured in differing ways and processes.
Frequently we make use of a shunt resistor, across which we can measure the voltage drop caused by current flow. Actually many oscilloscopes have a galvanic electrical connection between signal ground and the protective earth ground wire of the VAC line supply and for this reason the shunt method is often inappropriate. Commercial current clamp devices certainly are able to measure current by potential-free means but they are not suitable for capturing rapid alterations in current over time.
In addition many low-cost examples of these do not provide an output for connecting to an oscilloscope. One benefit of these high prices: In fact special components exist for this purpose that do the main work for you.
The following is a brief explanation of this double conversion of physical quantities. Current clamp principles As explained above, we have here a current that is first turned into a magnetic field and from that into a voltage. Figure 1 shows the three essential elements in functional form. At the input left we have a ferrite toroidal core with an air gap.
Passing through this, like a coil winding, is a wire whose current is to be measured. The core is insulated with a plastic coating, which guarantees potential-free operation even when using a bare wire.
The current flowing through the wire induces, mainly in the core, a magnetic field that is concentrated in the air gap. A Hall sensor then converts the magnetic field of the air gap into a proportional voltage. The amplifier that follows takes care of level and impedance matching. Quite simple really. A major advantage of this method is that the shunt-free measurement is extremely low-resistance.
Using a Hall sensor enables you to measure DC currents as well, which would not be possible if you used the toroidal core as a transformer, whilst not measuring the magnetic field with a Hall sensor would involve the need for a secondary winding. To avoid having to first disconnect the wire and thread it through the core, handheld devices are arranged to be hinged.
The key requirements in this situation are the ability to take floating measurements, the bandwidth and the accuracy. Here I would like to tell you about how I acquired the device and how I brought it back to life and even updated it.
Front view of my HP test oscillator in actual operation. I bought the oscillator back in in defective condition for five Dutch guldens from a company where I was on a work placement stint. Unfortunately my unit came without documentation, so I wrote to the company to ask for help. I simply sat down and typed a letter, put it in an envelope with a stamp, and dropped it in the post box. Nowadays you need an old dictionary to find out what those words mean.
I was more than willing to pay a reasonable price for a good service manual, but clearly HP liked the idea that someone wanted to breathe new life into an old device from their stable and kindly sent me an original manual free of charge. Nowadays hobbyists can simply search the web for a suitable manual. The photo in Figure 1 shows the test oscillator in its present state.
Read on to learn how it got there. Kepler space telescope retires Eric Bogers November 9, We have exciting innovations, interesting lectures and of course the latest hardware from our laboratory up our sleeve! Hence the reticence towards anything in this area that is not a-na-lo-gue… Now the Siglent SPDX programmable power supply is, rightly, striking for its TFT liquid revisya screen.
The meter from Mastech that we describe here is a mid-range instrument with a price tag of just below 50 euros and also offers a few nice features!
Attack on Bitcoin easier than expected May 9, Under pressure from public revists, tech companies such as Facebook promise to better their ways. Choosing a soldering iron: All the Android projects in this book were developed using the B4A programming language. Especially for this price!
Elektor at electronica — be there! MIT survey to establish moral guidelines for autonomous vehicle control November 7, Jens Nickel November 1, Reviwta is shown with the rhythm of an electronicist who gets his kicks with good old fashioned through-hole components.
Since this one displays essential parameters and voltage waveforms in real time, does that carry enough weight to sway the opinion of old greybeards? The dark side of technology is receiving increasingly more attention. From your lab power supply, you look for power, infallible reliablility and stability of a gazlillionth of a volt. A few years ago we placed a review about the Siglent SDSX and back then we were very enamoured by eektor quality and extensive capabilities of this affordable instrument.