following websites for downloading free PDF books where one can acquire as much knowledge as you want. In case Get without registration Dundo Maroje ZIP . Dundo Maroje. Uploaded by Enida Kapur. Dundo Maroje. Copyright: © All Rights Reserved. Download as PDF or read online from Scribd. Flag for inappropriate. Etikkasili. [PDF] The Lion in Winter: A Comedy in Two Acts Full Online · [PDF] Dundo Maroje (Hrvatski klasici) (Croatian Edition) Full Colection. Etikkasili .
|Language:||English, Spanish, Dutch|
|Genre:||Fiction & Literature|
|ePub File Size:||25.82 MB|
|PDF File Size:||14.10 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
Uncle Maroje was a sequel to Pomet and contains many of the same characters but the .. DUNDO MAROJE (from the inn) Maro Marojev, Bok- čilo, didst thou. His best-known comedy is a. Plautine play, Dundo Maroje (Uncle Maroje). The action takes place in Rome. Dundo Maroje, a rich but stingy Ragusan merchant. Ragusan wit of Marin Drżić's Dundo Maroje; Brother Jan Palećek, a Bohemian representative of holy folly; and Sir John Falstaff, the embodiment of folly in.
Secondly, the principle of reduction is essential in containing the overwhelming emotions of the puppet in small, physical expressions. Jastrow, Joseph. The company has been, and remains, at the forefront of puppet theatre in South Africa, also receiving deserved international acclaim. From on, they started to focus on adult theater and commented on the current political environment in South Africa and Africa. She has observed that dolls were given away, put into boxes, drowned in waters and wells and had to suffer all other kinds of unhappy fates. This tradition was presented as a fundamental substrate of Yugoslav identity, evoking experiences and feelings common to generations of South Slavs, in a nar- ration that made of the hajduk the forerunner of the Partisan, fighting against the ever-present enemies of the freedom of the peoples of Yugoslavia: Indiana University Press.
Jennings Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, , , Konkursbuch Verlag, Besides the magical dimension that dolls and puppets refer to, playing with dolls can help children to learn significant lessons about identity and alterity, about self and otherness, about empathy, and, crucially, about themselves in relation to others.
Regardless of how innocent they may appear, they definitely possess a particular form of uncanniness, a sense of morbidity, of in-between qualities, of an ambiguousness that triggers ambivalent feelings.
The interactive encounters between dolls and human beings and their resulting relationships often turn out to be intriguing and complicated. What actually happens between dolls and humans? In any case, dolls and puppets contain surplus values and spill-over powers.
It should not be overlooked that they are not only cultural artefacts that refer to long forgotten magical spheres, but they can also be read as subtexts on hegemony and domination. Or more specifically, they can be a means of hegemony and domination when it comes to telling girls and women how to look, how to behave, and how to feel. The language of things: Accessed August 21, , http: Due to their enigmatic character, dolls can serve many functions in many domains: In fact, the focus of this contribution will be on dolls as toys — toys as artefacts and toys coming alive as historical and contemporary literary characters in doll narratives.
Although the significance of dolls and doll play for children will be looked at, special emphasis will be put on the role dolls play when it comes to saying farewell to the childhood.
Therefore, the main focus will be on activities like leaving dolls behind, abandoning them or letting them die and even burying them. The analysis of these apparently strange and weird encounters and actions can give some insight into the challenging and sometimes irritating and unsettling developmental phase of growing up.
Dolls and doll narratives in human development Since the dawn of mankind, dolls have been used as ritual and sacrificial objects, idols, fetishes and other symbolic substitutes in the context of celebrations, worship, spiritual encounters, conjurations, execrations, rites of passages and phases of individual development.
As cultural artefacts and personally meaningful objects, dolls play an outstanding and particular role in child development. As a favorite toy object for children, dolls serve multifunctional needs and can be used both instrumentally as well as symbolically. Donald W. All these processes and dynamics enhance further development while allowing the child its first steps into autonomy and separation while still being attached to significant others at the same time.
The meaning and functions of transitional objects and transitional spaces are not restricted to child development but can be found throughout life- long development, especially in times of transitions and upheavals. On the one hand, dolls as transitional objects are capable of providing emotional security, reassurance and consolation. On the other hand, they also challenge the child and other individuals to explore and synthesize their inner and outer worlds.
In that way, dolls serve as important companions, tutors and counterparts in the process of identity formation being, in a way, objects as well as agents of socialization.
Via their particular kind of materialization, looks and appeals, dolls send out specific messages, mostly to girls. As a gender-affiliated toy, they also carry messages for boys, albeit different ones. Therefore, the dolls that are available to children in a given culture and society give them an idea of the gendered world around them. They tell them what is appropriate and what is unacceptable to dream of or how to look, think, behave or feel as a girl or a boy.
As literary characters, dolls are suited for animation by children and adults alike. They turn into living beings, embodying and expressing observable and hidden human features — looks, attitudes, thoughts, longings, fears, and so forth. Narratives of animation, metamorphosis, and development New Haven and London: Furthermore, many motifs that appear in doll narratives go along with developmental tasks children have to cope with in the course of coming of age and gradually leaving the realm of childhood behind.
The question is: Thus, Minchen tells her young readers: Spamer, , This kind of constricted female human world seems sharply cut off from the wild and burlesque underworld of dolls who are engaged in some kind of frolicking and carnival-like activities. What could be the message of the underground dolls to the girls and women above?
Maybe their answer could be read as follows: Do not suppress your core, inner vitality but stay in touch with your playfulness and emotions, especially when you are coming of age!
In , the psychologists G. Stanley Hall and A. Thienemanns Verlag. Anton Hoffmann, , National Museum in Warsaw. Accessed August 30, , http: Caswell Ellis and G.
Harvey C. Furthermore, boys also favored animal dolls, which were treated with fondness and tenderness far more often than dolls imitating human form. The affection of boys for toy animals is, in fact, still observed today. The data of this historical study contain all kinds of information on dolls and doll play and readers learn about the onset as well the termination of doll playing behaviour.
By that, the latter aspect is one of the central questions of interest in this paper: Why and when do children stop playing with their dolls? For these reasons they gave their dolls away or they were made to stop playing by adults and by peers.
Hall and Ellis argue: It is then realized more distinctly than before that dolls have absolutely no inner life or feeling. Most of them solved this conflict by deciding to play rather secretly.
Therefore, doll play seems not only a touchy issue for boys, but also at least potentially highly ambivalent for girls at the onset of puberty. When it comes to either deciding to end doll play and thus expelling oneself from the paradise of childhood and accepting the resultant regret and sorrow, or to continue playing with dolls which might be accompanied by a bad conscience and feelings of embarrassment and shame, girls are somehow trapped between their own needs and social norms and expectations.
She therefore transformed this request into a drama performed on an imaginary stage. She built a funeral pyre, the dying doll turned herself into Dido, spoke her last sad words and stabbed herself with a penknife. Immediately after the girl had enacted this dramatic scene, the real doll accidently caught fire and thus, Dido, or the real doll, was no more.
It proved to be a significant transitional phase that was celebrated as a normal formative rite of initiation. For instance, in order to express that they were ready for marriage, adolescent girls in ancient Greece sacrificed their favourite doll as an oblation to one of the Goddesses — Hera, Aphrodite or Artemis. Death of dolls and abandonment of dolls — markers of the end of childhood The death of dolls constitutes a remarkable phenomenon in the course of developmental transformations from childhood to adulthood.
We can discern some kind of preconscious dealing with the developmental issue of how and when childhood is over and people having to decide on the meaning of dolls in their own lives. Urania, For example, the later famous psychoanalyst Karen Horney found herself in a typical and significant inner struggle at the age of fifteen when she started her diary on the 24th of December with the following reflections: Mother has fulfilled all my wishes with her customary kindness.
In addition to you, my dear Diary, I found a Negro boy doll that I had ardently longed for. As can be inferred from more recent doll research data, still playing with dolls when no longer a child does not seem to be a significant cause of inner struggles in adolescent girls anymore. Yet the crucial role of the Barbie doll should not be underestimated when it comes to the point of abandoning dolls as childish relics from a developmental period that has been overcome.
In fact, Barbie can sometimes make girls develop a critical stance as far as gender-role stereotypes are concerned. All of sudden, the notion of playing with Barbie can have a reverse effect, with Barbie no longer being a means of preserving the idylls of childhood, but becoming an object of aggression that has to be rejected because of its stale promises as a fashion doll and sex symbol.
For example, a project in art education revealed evidence of the inner struggle and ambivalence of girls in the course of coming of age. The work of one of the students presents Barbie laid out in a coffin with a slip of paper pierced through her breast saying: The Nineteenth Century, ed.
University of Illinois Press, , , especially p. Basic Books, , Jahrhundert Marburg: Jonas Verlag, , Dolls, these fascinating and bewildering objects, suggest many possible pathways out of this in-between developmental stage, the liminal or marginal land beyond childhood and before adulthood or womanhood. Again we see that dolls can serve as a marker of either still belonging to the familiar sphere of childhood or of having to transcend it and set out for the new and unknown world of growing up.
For some girls it feels like a curtain dropping behind them, excluding them from the former world of dolls and play. On the other hand, there are also ways of coping with this challenge, and sometimes dolls can help children, especially girls, to clarify how they want to move forward.
Some children seem to be able to manage and balance the ambiguous complexity of this situation with all its confusing expectations and feelings of ambivalence. It is not by chance that Hall and Ellis arrive at the following conclusion after extensively studying the meaning of dolls for children: One child had tried all her life to keep her doll from knowing that she was not alive.
Dolls are buried without dying, fed without eating, bathed without water, now good, now bad, now happy, now tearful, without the slightest change, the child furnishing the motive power, and all its moods being mirrored in alter ego.
Some of these doll stories were highly normative-affirmative, whereas others sometimes presented subtle criticism between the lines. Yet what happened when all these tasks were properly accomplished during childhood? With the onset of puberty, girls were gradually given to know that all these tasks were only a rehearsal for the next upcoming developmental step — becoming a devoted wife and a good mother.
They were therefore expected to close the curtain on their childhood practices and abandon doll play in order to grow up. Sometimes, the topic of this apparently necessary detachment from the affectionate bond between dolls and girls appeared even earlier, as education and school attendance became more and more significant for girls in the doll stories of the late 19th century and early 20th century.
Therefore, the transition from playing with dolls to learning at school became a major developmental task that sometimes called for gradually leaving dolls, as well as the play culture of the childhood years and Figure 2: Minchen, the wise doll, knows about this upcoming separation and alarms her doll peers about the impending alienation.
She has observed that dolls were given away, put into boxes, drowned in waters and wells and had to suffer all other kinds of unhappy fates. Only occasionally do we find some kind of counter-evidence: Spamer, , ii.
Thus, the doll narratives of Emma Biller both match as well as subversively undermine the rigid rules of conduct that were prevalent at her time. This time, it is not the transition to school or puberty that brings the serious side of life into the arena, but rather an act of war.
Yet, as far as gender roles and belief-systems about femininity and masculinity are concerned, we find rather strict convictions about fundamental gender differences with a high preference for female core characteristics. Traditional gender differences were definitely affirmed and male dolls, with their behavior and rather restricted range of social roles, were not appreciated very much. In any case, a clear-cut gender role division of life, work, and labour is advocated.
Thus, a bridal doll, shortly before her wedding with a Hussar, teaches Minchen, the wise doll, the relevant lessons and explains the irrevocable gender differences, the different virtues and competences of each gender: You see, we as female dolls are housewives or cooks or pupils [ If my hussar is told to go to the drill ground, he factually is stuffed into a closet or put into a corner.
But with his face against the wall my hussar has no chance of getting brainy. Dolls cope with ongoing social changes and deal with persisting as well as changing life circumstances; they comment on different socio-economic conditions of families, children, and women, on the significance of education, on diverse life opportunities and on the pros and cons in relation to issues such as marriage, divorce, and widowhood.
In times of globalization, new social media, and puzzling social roles, the challenge of coming of age is obviously associated with various aspects of personal insecurity and the ambiguities of the external world.
Thus it is natural that doll narratives are still seen as a good and appropriate means of connecting with 33 Emma Biller, Minchen, die kluge Puppe, Margaret K. And, again, in this modern coming-of-age-story, questions as to when childhood ought to end are interwoven with the issue of abandoning dolls and letting them die. The storyline goes as follows: Zach, Poppy, and Alice are twelve years old and have been friends almost forever.
They have played an ever-changing game of pirates, thieves, mermaids and warriors — in a realm reigned over by the mysterious Great Queen.
With their entry into middle school, this idyllic world of shared fantasies is endangered, as is their friendship. Zach is forced by his father to give up make-believe play. He reluctantly complies and starts avoiding his former playmates. Alice seems to be better able to cope with this situation and wants to move on and cope with the incipient developmental changes but Poppy does not understand what is happening with her friends. She has dreams about the Great Queen and the ghost of a girl who claims to find no rest until the bone-china doll queen is buried in her empty grave.
Poppy convinces the other two to engage one more time in an adventure before their childhood is over and it will be time for them to move on. Although each of the three is dealing with personal issues and family matters, it is the fate of the doll that finally decides them one more time. What lessons can be learned within this context of dolls, mystery, and ghosts? The three young protagonists learn a lesson about friendship and truth, and a lesson about accepting change while keeping bonds.
As boys often seem far removed from the sphere of dolls, it is interesting that the doll narrative presented here focuses on Zach, the only boy among the three friends. He has to find his own new role and male identity in a gendered world. He is rebellious: Furthermore, he is quite disturbed and wonders why he has butterflies in his stomach whenever Alice is around, so, it also a story of nascent infatuation.
However, it is also a story of the various possible and intriguing functions of dolls, of male doll playing and of the mysterious doll queen. It is a farewell to a fascinating and intriguing doll character and to a time of intense emotions and bonds that need to be overcome and unraveled in order for the children to move on as individuals while still staying attached to each other.
This doll narrative of the 21st century is a coming-of-age novel that takes place within an ambiguous and uncanny context of fantasy and imagination, of spooky chills, graveyards, mystery, ghosts, and even murders. The doll play in which the three friends engage allows them to experiment with possible alternate selves and alter egos.
It is a rehearsal of forthcoming developmental tasks and challenges. And above all, it is a story of future strength and hope. Sometimes, things, places, people and dolls have to be left behind but not necessarily abandoned.
In the case of a consensual farewell, there will be something new — playful and promising. Concluding remarks: Yet, although the focus on dolls might have declined over recent decades and they may have lost their former primary status as favourite toy objects, there are also some hints of a possible revival at least in puppetry, doll narratives and even in dolls beyond the stereotyped Barbie scheme.
What are the psychological subtexts and messages of these doll narratives and why are they still worthwhile? One of the answers could be this: Dolls and puppets trigger and allow fantasy, playfulness and development.
They encourage children, adolescents, and sometimes, even help adults to be, and stay, emotionally attached to beloved objects while becoming psychologically autonomous. Toys, elementary education, and social discourses in Brazil, ed. LIT Verlag, , , quote p. This plea might be a subconscious appeal of children and adolescents while playing with dolls, listening to and reading doll stories, and watching puppets and puppet shows. Selected Writings. Biller, Emma. Minchen, die kluge Puppe Leipzig: Spamer, Die Puppenfamilie.
Anton Hoffmann, Black, Holly. Doll bones Eliza Wheeler, illustrator New York: Bracken, Christopher. Ellis, A. Caswell and Hall, G. Fooken, Insa. Forman-Brunell, Miriam. Urbana, Chicago, and Springfield: University of Illinois Press, Gross, Kenneth. Hall, G. Stanley and Ellis, A. A study of dolls New York and Chicago: Horney, Karen. Husna, Huq. Kolhoff-Kahl, Iris. Kuznets, Lois Rostow. When toys come alive.
Lehman, Harvey C. Lehmann, Emmy. Die Puppe im Wandel der Zeiten. Marques, Circe Maria. LIT Verlag, Regener, Susanne. Jonas Verlag, Tawada, Yoko.
Ury, Else. Winnicott, Donald W. Pastors and puppets Four pastors are standing around a large table. In their hands they each have a puppet. It is a simple table-top and each rod puppet has a colourful foam ball for a head, a single arm, and a dresslike garment representing its body. It has been designed to be animated by a single puppeteer. They are breathing — the puppets that is — at different tempi and with different intensities.
The pastors are urged to animate rather than manipulate, meaning that they should aim at breathing with the puppet rather than breathing for it; they should try to avoid merely moving the puppet up and down to simulate the air going in and out of the inanimate creature and instead focus on animating the breath from the wrist rather than from the elbow or shoulder.
It is not about making the puppet breathe, it is about breathing with and through the puppet out into the world. It is about stepping in the background as a puppeteer and assuming the role of a guide subtly conducting attention and energy rather than being the center of attention. Why have these pastors been equipped with puppets? What is the point? Are they to become puppeteers and conduct the Sunday service solely through puppets?
The short answer would be no, the purpose is not to turn them 54 into puppeteers and the puppets are not supposed to be brought into the liturgical space of the Sunday service. The focus of this article will be to investigate what the function of the puppet is; what it contributes to the process of performative learning; and how the practice of puppetry relates to both theater anthropology and liturgical theology.
In a traditional Danish church service, the pastor normally conducts the service. He or she is responsible for selecting hymns and prayers and delivering the sermon, and is the primary liturgical celebrant throughout the entire service, highlighted in the sacraments. Although the congregation is invited and expected to sing along during the hymns, to stand to hear the scriptural readings and to come forth at communion, it is clearly the pastor who has the biggest role in the celebration of the service.
All too often the congregation become mere spectators and there is very little awareness of the impact of the bodily performance of both pastor and congregation. I claim that the service is a co-created celebration of the faith of the congregation, not a series of solitary actions by the pastor.
Everyone present in the church is involved in creating the service, and everyone is responsible for making the service their own — that is to say, making it a celebration of their belief and their relationship with God contextualized by the dogma of the Church. Doing that as part of the congregation can be very difficult in a service tightly dictated by pastor, liturgy and tradition. My hope is that an increased liturgical performative awareness will open the ritual to congregational involvement and participation, bridging the gap between the often rigid traditions of the liturgical ordo and the faith of the congregational members in a way that actualizes the ritual actions in the modern context while at the same time not compromising the fundamental teachings of the church.
It is not about revolutionizing church doctrine. It is not even about changing the liturgy. It is 55 about changing the way the celebration of the liturgy is approached. A liturgical animation-theater laboratory In the fall of I conducted a liturgical animation-theater laboratory.
Four Danish Lutheran pastors participated; together, we set out to investigate whether puppetry as a didactic tool could aid the pastors in obtaining a greater bodily awareness that could be transferred to their liturgical practice.
This was, however, constricted considerably by the fact that the participants had no prior knowledge of the collaborative principles of said tradition, and it therefore often seemed more like a traditional teaching situation, where I, as the group leader, took over the process and guided the participants through it.
However, there was a continual investigation of what was beneficial for each individual participant: The laboratory itself was designed with three meetings of two and a half days set approximately one month apart. The first meeting focused mainly on giving the participants basic puppeteering skills, while the second and third meetings had an increasing focus on liturgical exercises using the methods and skills learned through puppet exercises.
The participants were asked to keep a diary between the meetings, reflecting on whether and how they found the animation theater training useful in their daily liturgical practice, if they were able to transfer any of what we had worked 1 56 Erik Exe Christoffersen, Teaterhandlinger.
Forlaget Klim, , Mirella Schino, Alchemists of the Stage. Theatre Laboratories in Europe. Icarus Publishing Enterprice, The main purpose of the preliminary observation was for me to get a sense of the starting point of each of the four participants, how their liturgical performance was perceived by me as a congregational member and to give me a chance to spot individual strengths or weaknesses which could be explored through the laboratory.
My visits to the churches after the last laboratory meeting were intended to follow up on their individual progress outside the safe environment of the laboratory and to observe if they had been able to incorporate any of what they had learned through the meetings.
Below I will give a short theoretical outline consisting of key points from the world of puppetry, theater anthropology, performative ritual theory, and liturgical theology. It will focus on how the different fields may be able to assist each other in the investigation of research questions.
Next, I offer an analysis of two examples from the laboratory focusing on how the pre- expressive principles of theater anthropology are essential to the animation process and whether and how this can be transferred to liturgical practice. Lastly, I will summarize the key functions traced through the analysis and reflect on how puppetry may be able to make liturgical performance and celebration greater priorities in liturgical theology.
Theoretical overview This part of the article will focus on the theoretical plurality that made me want to investigate whether puppetry, as a didactical tool, might be a fruitful method.
The theater anthropology principles of the extra-daily action, the sats, the opposing actions, the luxury balance and the score;3 are all principles that assist a performer in attaining a greater performative presence.
As a pup- peteer, you have to stay in the background, and transport your energy to 2 This proved to be a difficult task, and there were always two or three of the participants who had forgot- ten about the diary. The evaluation of their process therefore was done in plenum at each meeting.
Routledge, , For me, this is a very important notion, as it is very close to what I understand as the position of the pastor in the liturgy: In my work as a puppeteer, it has always seemed to me that pre-expressive principles, especially the breath, are very important to the animation of the puppet.
It is a matter of transferred, not duplicated, kinaesthetic. The puppet and puppeteer become one, the latter stepping into the background, while his or her presence and energy remain in the puppet, just as should be the case with the liturgy and the pastor.
If you invest yourself fully, offering your energy to the inanimate and to the stipulated actions of the ritual, the actions will become organic and open themselves up to the spectator or congregational member. I claim that the mere act of moving around with the puppet can be described as an extra-daily action: Palgrave Macmillan, , A Journal of Performing Arts, Ritualized actions are meaningless 11 in that they are removed from their original meaning, thus creating a gap between action and intension, a va- cuum calling for a new ascription of meaning.
This qualitative alteration creates an energetic tension, which generates an intensified presence. By energy I mean the physical energy that goes into the execution of an action, and by presence I mean the human awareness in that moment. The extra- daily technique is achieved through reduction;12 that is to say, a reduction of the concrete action in such a way that even the smallest movement demands a large investment of energy.
Large and energy-consuming actions are reduced to tiny movements, but which still, however, need to contain the same amount of energy. This could also be reversed, so that small movements are magnified whilst containing their original energetic value. This is the exact reduction or magnification that faces a puppeteer. To get the puppet to move its arms or head in a controlled and somewhat realistic manner, you have to reduce your own movements, thereby compressing the energy, so as to transfer the action to the puppet as described above by Francis.
The breath is a very important factor in this; to make the puppet come alive, you have to breathe with it. Getting the head of the puppet to turn naturally and to react with the entire body and the breath is an extra-daily action; and you have to discard your own daily everyday body to be able to perform the correct movements. I understand the Sunday service 13 as an extra-daily action as well, as it follows a completely different set of rules than does everyday life; the sacraments, communion and baptism, are essentially like eating a meal and washing, but in the context of the service and because of the way they are executed they become rituals and extra-daily actions.
The essence is in the execution itself, not the result. This is not always obvious in Denmark, and my thesis is that introducing pre-expressive principles can optimize the performative quality of these actions. The compression of energy in the action is a key element, as it increases the presence in the moment and in the concrete action. Animating the puppet is a forced extra-daily action, because you are forced to relate to the inanimate object and the actions that will bring it to life instead of just focussing on animating your own body; you cannot rely on your intuition not unless you are an experienced puppeteer, at which point the extra-daily technique has become second nature but you constantly have to be ready to react with an acquired action.
This increases your presence because it prohibits you from falling back into daily routines. If we accept that both liturgical actions and the actions of a puppeteer can be defined as ritualized and extra-daily, it is clear that a puppet can be used to understand the liturgy as a performative action: You are on your own, in your own body, which means you will have to know how to construct and maintain an extra-daily body.
If I had set out to teach the pastors about the extra-daily, performative actions of the liturgy through exercises found in physical theater, they would not have been forced into this new mind-set and bodily experience. This is where the puppet can be of assistance: The principle of opposing actions,14 the theory that you have to be able to feel the power pulling you in the opposite direction before you can execute the desired action, plays a great part in the intensification of presence, because the state of readiness created by the opposing actions is an energetically condensed state.
If you for instance lift your arms, you cannot avoid feeling the force of gravity pulling them towards the ground at the same time. Herein lies also the luxury balance, 15 which is a permanent unstable state, where the performer is constantly altering his or her center of balance to maintain opposing actions.
The pastor lifts his or her arms with open palms facing the congregation, and blesses everyone present with words from Numbers 6: In lifting your arms, you alter your balance, and engage the luxury balance through the opposing action of the lifted arms. Below I will investigate whether and how these principles can be considered a basic part of the animation process.
The score enables the puppeteer to put even more energy and life into the puppet, by providing a structured and predetermined order of action. This gives the puppeteer and puppet a ritualized set of actions, in which the life of the puppet can be explored and the puppet and puppeteer become one. This is closely related to the relationship between the liturgy, the pastor and the message the pastor wants to deliver through the service.
The liturgy serves as the score, ensuring a constant ordo, conducted by the pastor, but the message, the gospel, is not only the scriptural words and the preaching, but also, just as importantly, what is communicated through the performative bodily actions of everyone attending the service. The liturgical theology speaks about the necessity of rediscovering and reinstating the rule of prayer found in the ancient church: Lex orandi, lex credendi The rule of prayer is the rule of the faith.
By setting the existing practice as a starting point for the dogmatics, the liturgical theology puts the performative action of the liturgy in a position to affect and determine the rule of faith. This is done not by compromising the creed of the church, but by underlining the importance of the physical actions of faith and how this affects what and how we believe.
By obtaining a greater understanding of the bodily performance of faith through the pre-expressive principles, the pastor will attain a set of practical tools allowing him or her to open the service to the participation of the congregation while still maintaining the necessary theological and liturgi- cal ballast.
A liturgical laboratory using puppetry as a teaching method To investigate the matter of using puppetry as a didactic tool in teaching pastors about bodily liturgical performance, I will present two examples from the liturgical laboratory.
A Liturgical Ecclesiology Minneapolis: Fortress Press, , First, I want to point out that the majority of animation exercises were done in silence. The exercises were purely physical with the focus kept on how to transfer the movements of the puppeteer to the puppet and create life.
I will return to why the puppet is essential in this. On making the journey the goal in itself One of the key elements of the training became understanding how and why the journey, all of which happens between the beginning and end of an action, can be more important than the end goal. Focusing on the process rather than the end goal seemed particularly difficult for the pastors who, whenever they were given an animation exercise, were very quick to focus on the end goal and steer straight towards it.
I started to wonder why this was. Was it because they were uneasy performing in front of the other participants? Were they truly unable to improvise and establish a bodily narrative? Or were they just so determined to do their very best, while at the same time overwhelmed by the experience of suddenly being puppeteers, that they had to focus keenly on the end goal so as to not forget it all together?
The wave exercise: You should spend some time establishing where you are. At some point you, looking out to sea, notice something on the horizon.
You do not know what it is. Maybe you are curious, maybe you do not care. Whatever you choose, the thing on the horizon is slowly approaching the shore, and suddenly you realize that it is in fact a gigantic wave.
A wave that continues to grow the closer it gets to the shore. How you react is up to you. The important thing is that you establish where you are, that you see the wave, that the wave grows, and that you react to it. The possibilities are many, but the boundaries are clear. The important thing is not whether the puppet is carried away by the breaking wave or flees.
The important thing is whether the audience sees a clear and unmistakable reaction in the puppet when it realizes that what it sees on the horizon is an enormous wave. This was a difficult exercise. The first few times all puppets were washed away very, very quickly. It was clearly difficult for the participants to hold the tension, difficult to let the puppet stay in the suspended situation.
But as is often the case in a good story, it is not the end that is the most important part. It is how you arrive at that final moment. Looking at the individual parts of the exercise will be helpful in circling in on what puppets can teach pastors and how this can relate to their liturgical practice. The exercise can be divided into three parts.
The first is the establishing of the situation; the where and who. This part is important to let the audience know where the puppet is, what it is doing and if possible give them an idea of who this character is. It requires the puppeteer to be able to animate the puppet fluently, mastering the basic movements of the particular puppet. And it requires the puppeteer to be able to establish a sense of place through silent, physical improvisation. All the basic movements of the puppet rely on the understanding of the extra-daily quality of the animation process: The sats is even more visible in the puppet than in the human performer, as the puppeteer has to consciously animate the breath of the puppet to keep it alive, while at the same time using the principle of the opposing actions to move the puppet.
The opposing actions the notion that you are constantly counterbalancing the direction of the action, i. The second part of the exercise consists of the single moment when the puppet sees the wave. Only when the puppet truly sees the wave will the audience know something has happened.
This brings us to the third part of the exercise: There are countless possibilities: No matter what the outcome, the important thing is to follow the progress of the wave. In the reaction stage, several principles become important.
The opposing actions are helpful in that they can help separate actions by retracting movements and thereby creating micro-pauses between the actions. Secondly, the principle of reduction is essential in containing the overwhelming emotions of the puppet in small, physical expressions.
Condensing the energy of the reaction will intensify the individual actions of the puppet. If you are unable to access and apply the extra-daily approach to the liturgical actions they are in danger of becoming a mere repetition of daily actions; that is, routine rather than ritual.
The application of the principles of the extra-daily lends a certain quality to the actions, such that every action performed within the score of the liturgy the ordo is experienced as if it was performed for the very first time every single time it is revisited,19 while at the same time keeping a clear relationship to the doctrine of the church and maintaining familiarity with the liturgy.
The exercises are not directly translatable to the actions of the liturgy, but the principles taught through the exercises are highly applicable. This transfer between the two practices was sought through liturgical exercises, where the principles learned through puppetry were applied to isolated parts of the liturgy. Alongside the physical implications of the use of extra-daily actions, the knowledge of the dramaturgical construction of a narration, consisting of a beginning, middle and an end, seems very useful in preparing scriptural readings, and making the texts accessible to the listeners through the way the text is read aloud.
Response to an Interview, in Contemporary Theatre Review: This proved very effective. On why the shortest route is not always the best Returning to the research question I began this article with, we may ask what the function of the puppet is. Does introducing the puppets and then not allowing the pastors to use them in the liturgy itself not represent a major detour? Would it not have been better to teach the principles of presence and focus and the importance of the bodily actions directly without the puppet as a mediator?
Why not focus solely on the liturgy and liturgical exercises? Granted, using the puppet can be seen as a detour, and there are more steps involved in the process of first learning the practice of puppetry and then transferring the principles to the practice of the liturgy.
The difficult part is understanding and mastering how to take something acquired through one practice and use the principles of this in a different situation where no puppet is present. For this very reason, it may seem a ludicrous thing to even introduce the puppet in the first place, but my claim is that its benefits outweigh its disadvantages.
The functions of the puppet are many, but for now I will focus on three: First, as mentioned above, I claim that animating a puppet is a forced extra- daily action, because the puppeteer is constantly forced to reinvent his or her actions to accommodate the puppets pattern of movement and to bring it to life.
Every single action of the puppet matters, which means that every single action of the puppeteer matters, because it is transferred to the puppet. If you are tuned in to the extra-daily nature of the puppet and focused only on how to bring the inanimate to life, there are no wrong movements, as noted by Francis above. At one point, one of the puppets lost its nose: The transition between the extra-daily actions of the life of the puppet and its sudden death when the puppeteer returned to a daily mode of action was clear to everyone in the room.
It is my theory that because the participants were not trained performers or actors, it would have proved more difficult to get them to experience the focus and presence found through puppetry and the extra-daily principles through ordinary physical-theater training.
It would have been too easy to return to the daily mode of actions, because there would have been no physical object outside themselves forcing them to adapt to the extra-daily. Second, the puppet protects the puppeteer: Using the puppet as a focus for the exploration of the relationship between performance and ritual was an advantage because the pressure was somewhat removed from the puppeteer as all eyes were on the puppet.
Third, the puppet as a didactic tool is very helpful to the teacher, as the actions of the puppeteer are transferred to and magnified in the actions of the puppet.
Due to the principle of reduction, every movement of the puppeteer is transferred to the puppet in a condensed form, and in combination with the silent exercises, the actions are both intensified and magnified in such a way that problem areas are immediately visible to both audience and puppeteer. And because of the direct correlation between puppetry and liturgy through the linking of the extra- daily and ritualization as shown above, the physical actions of animation are of the same quality as those you find in the celebration of the liturgy.
This gives the advantage that you can make a clear distinction between the daily and the extra-daily through the focus and life given to the puppet, while at the same time observing and correcting the performance, thereby strengthening the extra-daily, ritualized performance of both puppetry and liturgy. What the puppets had helped magnify was still there, but because the participants had each seen their own actions through the puppet, they instantly knew what to correct.
This is not to say that there was a direct translation between the individual animation exercise and the liturgical practice.
The exercises were vehicles, as were the puppets, for achieving a greater understanding of the importance of the extra-daily, ritualized approach to the physical and vocal actions of the liturgy. It must also be mentioned that using the puppet does involve a detour, and it requires the participants to have a high level of abstract thinking in relation to transferring principles from puppetry to liturgy, since they are not directly translatable.
I have tried to make it clear that there is a strong link between the principles of theater anthropology and puppetry, but how about the relationship between puppetry and liturgical theology?
This is exactly what the use of puppetry as a didactic tool is aiming at. It is still too early to reach any final conclusions, but it seems that the methods of puppetry can be very effectful in obtaining a greater performative, bodily understanding of the celebration of church services. It may not be a suitable method for everyone — we all learn in different ways — but it is my claim that it can help a lot of pastors in bridging the gap between rigid, canonical doctrine and organic, immediate liturgy.
It is about making the service, which in many cases has become mere routine, an extra-daily ritual again through the focus and presence attained through puppetry. Combining these puppets with African textures later be- came their unique South African style. They were given the opportunity to tour South Africa and Europe with these productions and became well-known in puppetry circles there.
Since they have caught the eye of the international theater and puppet circles with their production of War Horse, a commission by the National Theater in London. The vast oeuvre of the Handspring Puppet Company from to the present is considered to represent an important contribution to this art form. Basil Jones and Adrian Kohler set a trend in South African as well as in international puppetry circles by introducing a unique way of using multimedia effects in this genre.
They have created and manufactured puppets with strong African, East European and East Asian influences from their earliest works up to their most famous and recent work, War Horse.
From on, they started to focus on adult theater and commented on the current political environment in South Africa and Africa. Both these companies performed several puppet shows in South Africa during the sixties and seventies and thus had a huge influence on Kohler, who was enthusiastic about puppet theater Taylor, She had strong links to the Soviet bloc and Eastern Europe rod puppets. Her ideas on puppetry and her commentary on political ideas in South Africa at that point had a significant influence on Kohler.
She convinced Kohler and his parents that a career in Puppetry was possible. For the first time, Handspring used rod puppet interacting with actors. From the Japanese Bunraku Puppet Theater came the style of visible, black-cloaked puppeteers operating the puppets on stage and the giant designs of puppets based on West African characters from the Bambara and Bozo societies Kohler, , Marie Katz writes: The fairies do not flitter around in tinsel and soft voile dresses.
The production of Tooth and Nail in marked the beginning of a form of puppet construction and manipulation specifically used by the Handspring Puppet Company.
The main character, Saul, had an open chest construction of plywood and head carved form jelutong wood while the puppet was attached to the manipulator behind him Episodes, This style of construction and manipulation of puppets became the trademark of the Handspring Puppet Company for years to come. In a production of Chimp Project in , a whole puppet was constructed like a jigsaw puzzle made from plywood and covered in fabric scrim which allowed the transmission of light and gave the puppets a ghostlike appearance Badenhorst, This same visual style of puppet construction was also used in their award-winning production of War Horse where the puppets are made from bamboo and covered with fabric scrim.
The chimpanzee puppets heads and hands were carved from jelutong, a Malaysian hardwood, and the raw texture of the carved wood was left in its original state. Jones states: Pearman wrote the following in his article about this production: Fairly roughly carved, almost monochrome, wooden rod puppets and ink-drawn acetate shadow puppets were made to complement the charcoal drawings of the film.
The animated film was used to create the setting for various scenes, but more interestingly, also dealt with the thought and emotions of the puppets Badenhorst, During the professional marriage of puppeteer and artist which lasted for the next ten years they produced productions like Faustus in Africa, Ubu and the Truth Commission, and Zeno at 4 am, where the same Bunraku and Eastern Europe style of con-struction and manipulation styles are eminently visible.
In Faustus in Africa, the central puppet character Faustus sells his soul to the devil in exchange for unlimited power to influence events on the African continent. The Hyena, a minor devil, continued the idea of open structure puppets as seen in Tooth and Nail as well as in The Chimp Project Badenhorst, The character and movement of this puppet was so true to the real- life movement of a hyena that the audience sometimes were swept away from reality and did not even notice the open puppet constructions with torn scrim cloth and stockings.
This visual representation of the hyena and its aesthetics are so true to the actual animal that one cannot but sit back and totally believe in the character presented on stage. The leg movement control of this puppet was also re-used later in the designing of the horse puppet Joey, in the production of War Horse. There were three leading puppet characters in this production. The first was the vulture, who acted like a commentator on the actions and emotions of Ubu.
The second was Niles the crocodile handbag, who could eat and swallow all the evidence 74 thrown in his direction, while Ma Ubu will later sell these to the media. The Dogs of War form an evil barbershop quartet with Ubu himself. Ubu uses them as hit-squad sidekicks during the course of the play. All these puppets were animals with very strong connections to the African continent and were constructed in the same deconstructive style as was used in previous productions.
Puppets had an open wooden construction and roughly carved solid wooden heads and were finished with scrim cloth and stockings. By combining the Bunraku style of manipulation and the intricate European construction of the heads and hands with African aesthetics, these puppets, although made of different materials, such as a travel bag that acts as a body for the three heads of the Dogs of War, were very convincing as an individual entity on stage.
This style of puppetry is uniquely South African. The animist opera invites the audience to a new odyssey: This is one of the productions where Handspring clearly used Eastern European design and concepts and rod puppet manipulation combined with the African style of raw carved puppet heads very successfully.
They also combined the Bunraku style of manipulation, where the manipulators are exposed, with the traditional Eastern Europe way of manipulating rod puppets, where the puppeteers manipulate the puppets from below, hidden behind the scenery.
With the productions Zeno at 4am and Confessions of Zeno, Handspring again worked with Kentridge as director. The production employed a variety of techniques, including the interaction of actors, life- sized puppets and masquerade figures. The heads and masks were carved from wood and painted in a traditional West African style while costumes were made from African printed textiles in bright colours.
A giraffe puppet 5 meters high was designed and constructed by Kohler, the tallest and most technically intricate puppet that the Handspring Puppet Company had ever made. The puppet was constructed from a frame of carbon-fibre rods and it took two puppeteers on stilts to operate. The puppet was fully mechanical — its head, ears and tail could be manipulated by the puppeteers through a complex system made of bicycle brakes and cables Badenhorst, The play would be staged in the Olivier Theater at the National Theater complex.
After a few workshops in London during , they went back to Cape Town to start designing the puppets. The idea was that the horse, Joey, must be lifelike in movement and an actor must be able on ride on its back Kohler, , To create the legs, Kohler started from the leg design of the Rhino in Woyzeck on the Highveld and the paw movement from the Hyena in Faustus in Africa.
A horse can turn its ears degrees and points them forward to indicate interest, backwards to indicate fear or alarm; moving them to the side means that the horse is listening Kohler, , For Kohler and Jones it was of the utmost importance to have their puppet capture these essential movements of a horse. The mechanics of these puppets, making use of bicycle brakes and cables, were masterpieces of engineering.
In the British Theater Guide of , Kevin Quarmby wrote the following about the construction of the puppets: The microscopic realistic movement and emotions these horse puppets are able to produce play a very big role in the success story of this production. Michael Billington noted in The Guardian of April 6, They have created, out of skeletal bamboo frames and internal hinges, the most plausible and expressive quadrupeds ever to have graced the London stage.
At one point, Joey is magically transformed from a skittering foal into a bucking, rearing grown-up horse. Later a tank menacingly rolls across the stage like an armour plated behemoth. This was done with costumes, but instead of wearing black as in the traditional Bunraku style, puppeteers were dressed in costumes to become one with the puppet they are manipulating.
The puppeteer became an extension of the puppet and, as Jones writes in his essay: They feel themselves to be in a new interpretation territory 77 concerning the meaning of animals within the context of a theatrical event. Lifelike without any attempt to conceal the artifice, the creatures are magnificent, a thrilling synthesis of art and imagination. It was not until I stopped to think that I just cried over a horse that was actually made up of several props held together by visual handlers.
This is the power and magic of great theater. Design elements from most of their previous productions were incorporated into the War Horse production. The unique technique of raw carved wooden heads and hands, plywood body parts and puppets with gauze covered bodies with realistic animal and human movement, is but one of the elements which one can see throughout all their work.
A puppeteer who became an extension of the puppet, who acts as its caretaker or translator, is another prominent element that one can see in all of their productions. These major elements have become the international trademarks of the Handspring Puppet Company. The artistry of the Handspring Puppet Company consists of finding innovative ways of engineering puppet movement as demanded by each new theater production. Their social commentary on South Africa and historical situations there made them one of the major players in the South African theater community.
They have successfully morphed together European, Asian and African puppet styles to come up with a unique puppet style and identity: Badenhorst, Zuanda. Billington, Michael. The Anatomy of a Puppet Wiltshire: The Crowood Press Ltd, Episodes: Goodman Gallery, Jones, Basil. Jane Taylor. David Krut Publishing, , Katz, Marie.
Kentridge, William. David Krut Publishing, , Kohler, Adrian. Pearman, C. David Krut Publishing, , Torre, Roma. This production served as the precursor to a full-length production in , Confessions of Zeno. La Conscienza di Zeno The novel literally: The doctor told him to start writing an autobiography to help in the psychoanalytical process. When Zeno discontinued his sessions, the doctor took revenge by publishing the work.
This we learn from the preface, purportedly written by 80 Dr S. It is only the last chapter that becomes a real diary, with pages relating to specific dates in the period of World War I. Zeno then traces the memories of how he met and married his wife, followed by a chapter entitled Wife and Mistress, dealing with another addiction which he struggles to give up — his mistress.
Next he deals with his business partnership with his brother-in-law, Guido. Finally he describes his current life during WW1 in diary form under the chapter heading Psychoanalysis. At a number of points during the novel, Zeno finds himself in a semi-wakeful state between sleep and reality and he also deals with some of his dreams or, sometimes, nightmares.
The novel is episodic and fractured and deals with the very personal and innermost thoughts of the main character and thus does not provide an easy basis for a dramatic re-interpretation. All hotels in Dubrovnik Share another experience before you go. Log in to get trip updates and message other travelers. Valamar Collection Dubrovnik President Hotel. Cast About the play Critics Director: All of your saved places can be found here in My Trips. What is Certificate of Excellence?
Show reviews that mention. Maroj for light lunch. It is almost next to Sponza Palace. The staff were lovely, they were attentive without being over the top. Great food, great service!
The waiters were very nice. We stopped on this side street of Main Street for a lunch.
Ask Juliet A about Dundo Maroje. Is this an ice cream shop? Claim your listing for free to respond to reviews, update your profile and much more. Read reviews in English Go back.