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Multiversum left me with the desire of reading Memoria; Memoria has left me with more desire for. Utopia. I cannot wait for buying it. Memoria (Multiversum, #2). The first book of the Multiversum Saga was released in in Mondadori's YA section, Chrysalide, which also includes many MULTIVERSUM #3 - UTOPIA. Download PDF Multiversum (Tome 3-Utopia) in PDF file format for free at

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The book Multiversum (Tome 3) - Utopia PDF Download Online can be found for free on this site by way of a ' click ' downloads that are on this. The Spirit of Utopia plays a significant role in the hisrory of German social, the multiversum of a universal republic, so that the waste of isolated cultures will. MULTIVERSUM T3 UTOPIA PDF - Are you looking for Ebook Multiversum T3 Utopia Pdf? You will be glad to know that right now Multiversum T3 Utopia Pdf is .

These are the opening words of Ernst Bloch's first major work, The Spirit of Utopia, written mostly in , published in its first version just after the First World War, republished five years later, , in the versIon here presented for the first time in English translation. But that often makes everything insufferably overheated and melodramatic, where the word, the compulsion to reality, does not at all require it. Both are still nameless. Tinta y Celuloide: The Self-Encounter 9 The endless, curious children's question arises again. Therefore the new chord is only then written when what matters to the composer is to express something new and incredible, which moves him.

Mondadori Publication date: Chrysalide ISBN Goodreads reviews for Multiversum 1. Reviews from Goodreads. As centuries go by after the last day of mankind, a new Era begins on planet Earth. Goodreads reviews for Multiversum 2 - Memoria. Their memories are the only hope left. Goodreads reviews for Multiversum 3 - Utopia. Turkey Poland. You can drop a line to the author via email: TFK srl web development: Password by TFK english version supervisor: Cruise Missiles: Technology, Strategy, Politics download.

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One could certainly claim, therefore, that customers are ready for something that the inanity of the available selection cannot provide. One should certainly think busily and economically for a while. And we would certainly not choose the new ones; the sight of them is so horrible that nothing more could still be grafted onto them.

Often it is precisely the dirtiest petit bourgeois scoundrels, with all the bad qualities of a Mittelstand in decline, greedy, duplicitous, undependable, shameless, and sloppy, who as producers of handicrafts now occupy the role of the master craftsmen. Then, of course, when one isolates it in this fashion, the cold appliance no longer remains everywhere problematic. It's true as far as it goes: So one tries to ease things with color: Depleted soil is being planled that will bloom sparsely if at all, will yield little more than stones.

For what precisely remains doubtful is whether artful craft objects, each individually, luxuriously decorated, can ever appear around us again. Concrete cannot be set on fire; it is healthy in an entirely other sense, and without concrete we would have no usably modern houses. The only point of contact, and here again an illusory one, is offered by the banquet hall, the concert hall, and the theater, particularly where, as with Polzig, the building radiates onto the stage, and into the discrete magic of its illusionism; may the cupola also remain a permanently discrete structure, already a link to sacral architecture.

So let us honestly get to work, and let life go only where it alone should. Of course even in this instance, a chair is still only there in order to be sat on; it simply refers to the person at rest. The psycho-socially embedded difference between applied and pure, high art is immediately defined by this changed angle of vision, by the observer's own rotational process.

For everything that is to be used, everything that remains floor and armchair, that is occupied by an individual presently experiencing himself, falls into the category of craft; whereas creations that elicit the gaze, that rise up as entablature, as a sculpture extending over us, in other words become the armchair, the shrine for the body of the higher, the godly, are occupied solely by the individual experiencing himself symbolically therein, and hence belong to high art.

There is thus a powerful difference between tastefully appointed functionality and high art: What we have to add here, what is decisive, is this: There is something about and above the old chair which' lives, which 'does not remain simply comfortable, and lets us l ok across at something more than the person who happens to be resting there.

So we have always whittled since early times, worked in wood. One did not need to be skilled; whatever impressed or deeply pained someone was banished with a few strokes, or by just the angularity of the wood. Thus the tool appeared, which had to be handy and comfortable. The flint was smoothed jaggedly, in other words functionally; the clay vessel was turned to be easily gripped; the material itself and its intended function alone set the conditions.

In contrast, the earliest, materially consistent functional forms leave the path from a human being to what is human; stone, structural clarity, in other words something incipiently Egyptian and then again natural, forces itself into the labor of shaping. The Appeal ofthe Greek Nevertheless, this artistic vitality, the only thing one aimed at, will not cease moving.

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So weavings, pitchers began to be covered in stripes and cheerfully clear lines, at least; a sort of sparingly decorative life sprang up again, a playfully geometrizing regularity. But also: On the other hand, however, the figure is here so well balanced again, so full of euphrosyne and measure, that she meets the unity of the slab at least halfway; for this reason, the Hellenic torsi from which has been broken off that which had to be broken off in accordance with the spirit of the material, seem better than the originals.

In short: In this way the Greeks escaped, fashioned a world for themselves where they could live, where at any moment they could evade the terror of chaos, but also the seriousness of decision. Here everything is muted, in such an Apollonian mixture of the vegetal and the inert, that the. Indeed, a Greek element survived even into the Christian Middle Ages, beneath all the Gothic fervor, in the middle of the most pervasive transcendentalism: Nothing seems inscribed in plaster as irreversibly as the power to make its worlds "Egyptian.

This means: Man also sees his future here, but sees himself dying, hides himself in the grave. After death he arrives in the underworld, the land where the sun shines at night, or at best, if the judges find his life to have been virtuous, reaches paradise, to live with the murdered and reborn Osiris, Lord of the Dead.

The famous I'" The Production ofthe Ornament 21 path that leads past rows of rams, sphinxes, or columns to the holy of holies is truly just a "guide" and thus as it were a purely pedagogical affair; what remains characteristic, as the total impression, as the total essence of Egyptian sacral art, is lifeless, gaping silence.

The insides of such structures abandon the blossoming, transient, yet also interior kingdom of life all the more: Even where the gaze penetrates through ever smaller and darker spaces into the most! Ra, always visible through every animal and human form and every local god of Egypt, in the spirit of an absolute astral mythos.

We had said that function and style, however falsely lifelike they may try to seem, lead back in the same way to stony essence. Or, rather, to be consistent in our terms: For Egypt remains the ideal as well as the fulfillment of unbroken constructedness, of a meaningfUl constructedness no longer dictated by the effort of stylization but by the spirit of the material and by stone-immanence as such. Only Christian life truly breaks through the stone; here even external space can become Gothic, and the Annunciation in the choir of the Church of St.

Lorenz in Nuremberg was created just in order to sing the space where it hangs, in order to make this space sing, and by hanging in the middle, to concentrate in itself the inner song of this spatial complex.

Whereas even in Romanesque or Byzantine style, even in the horizontal Gothic, every where where gravity and order appear as the essence of figuration, in other words, a final, singular potential of Egypt reappears, transposed from astrology into overt mysticism.

The Gothic Volition to Become Like the Resurrection But the inner life, moving toward itself, only flares up again more strongly. It make: Here one should keep early man in mind, and think in terms of whittling. The Production ofthe Ornament 23 Indeed, this vital trace already bends upward toward us from that place where no one yet is.

The Negroes have until now kept their gods of life carved according to the wood, transmitting its vitality through handles, rattles, beams, thrones, and idols. We are familiar with the twining snakes and seahorses, the twinned dragons of Nordic line work, and nothing can compare to this uncanny pathos, which is incorrectly attributed to an animation of the inorganic.

Everything that would blossom and be abundant must learn from such pre-Gothic artifacts, and there is no spiral, no digression, and no architectural power with the deeply organic laws of this digressiveness that does not also breathe with its head in the wild, cloudy atmosphere of this organicity, so filled with flutterings, musical intimations, infinities. Since Worringer's felicitous and suggestive presentation, there can be no doubt that here in this ornamentalism of interwoven bands and animals is given the secret Gothic within the Baroque and after.

Here, however, in a fashion not at all Greek, the foliage closes in, the most peculiar decoration covers every surface, and crawls over the walls to break them up. We have seen: For the Egyptians, guided by the form of the stone, the way leads outward, mysterious without mystery: Gothic line, on the other hand, contains all this agitation within itself; this line is restless and uncanny like its forms: Not the brightly and evenly articulated Greek line, but the essentially adventurous, farsighted, functional Gothic line alone is complete life, the finally pure kingdom above functional form, the free spirit ofthe very movement ofexpression, and only in alliance with this line - The Production ofthe Ornament 25 could Egypt, constructed stone, be broken through in those epochs that were above style.

Whereby the Romanesque, Byzantine, Arabic-Indian, Gothic, and, ignoring its actually improper stylization for the moment, the Baroque represent this organic exuberance's progressive triumph over the crystal. In other words: The endless line, in its first Nordic manifestation, blossomed and grew everywhere without knowing where to go; only as Gothic line did it become true, not merely organic but organic-spiritual transcendence, in the sense that above its surging tide the star of the Son of Man could rise that fully determines it.

In other words something stirs and seethes here in these stones, trying to blossom as we do, to have the life we do. For one simply cannot omit oneself when one is building with the energies of the Son of Man inside oneself. The law has never yet made a great man, but freedom breeds the true colossi and the true extremities.

In no other way can externalized interiority occur, and therefore a higher-level organicity, the ornament in excess and the I's quiet reunion with the I who I will be: Man, and not the sun, not geomancy or astrology, but man in his very deepest inwardness, as Christ, here became the alchemical standard of everything that is built.

Here dominates that beautiful warmth where the living soul does not suffocate, the warmth of the beloved and the light that radiates The Production ofthe Ornament from the flower, from the lucerne of every maiden, the beautiful warmth in which the living soul is vanquished by humility and devotion and taken into the arms of the Gothic Virgin like the very Christ child himself The Gothic will to render the choir and indeed the entire interior ever more transfigured, the Gothic's upward tendency in its fullness dematerializes all mass: Here, in other words, the breakthrough will also succeed: Modernity's paths, the irreversible eruption of its mystical nominalism, have to be followed through to the end, or Egypt, or perhaps the equally obsolete coherence of the historical as opposed to the aprioristic Gothic, will again be enthroned.

We have become more individual, searching, homeless; we are formed more flowingly, the self of us all rises up close by.

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Form is no longer the only means one requires to speak, to draw attention; in fact, it is no longer even a means that one especially needs. Certainly one would like to see clearly, and, if possible, airlessly. Still, that is not decisive, since Kokoschka paints with gray, brown, dark violet, and every other earth tone. And when Marc and Kandinsky take up purer colors, the latter indeed aiming at a theory of color harmony, and if in general the fashion is to revel in clear, skinless local colors instead of an atmospheric blur, then here one is no longer taking pleasure in color as such; rather, it is the capacity for excitement for whose sake here only the purest, crassest luminosity is selected and assembled.

It is that peculiar emotional value accruing as much to the individual colors as to their composition: Thus Daubler can say of such colors: On the other hand drawing certainly drives us powerfully forward again as well.

No more visual devotion to inferior, cursory impressions. What is being sought is not line in itself, any more than color in itself, unless the line does not smoothly outline, and is dense, and expressively compacted. As when in Rousseau or Kandinsky trembling or riding appears as a short, striking curve, or the desire for revenge as a j agged, arrow-shaped formation, or benevolence as a blossoming flower.

Thus an early painting by Picasso still bears the telltale title: And certainly it is 29 The Production ofthe Ornament not simply effective placement that makes something Cubist, since every image from the past, and especially from absolute epochs of style, could then be represented as Cubist; rather, it is the remarkably heterogeneous Raphael who clarifies this issue far more than the otherwise so much more significant Leonardo.

Now things do not merely exist in space, but space exists within things, and space can certainly build a foundation without equal, as in the Roman Pantheon or even in Gothic cathedrals. But of course much else lags behind, and besides, broken. It can also signify a lower objective determination, like any other meaningful formalization. Moreover, while Kokoschka or Picasso break through the earlier faith! So if one should want to make a more deeply mimetic form out of such painting inward, painting into the spatial stillness, which the Cu- , 30 The Production ofthe Ornament bists have cultivated against Impressionism's agitation and naturalism, the attempt will be completely impossible by Cubism's definition as pure, pictorial composition in terms of surfaces and weights, and in a larger sense conceivable only insofar as a cube as ornament is no ornament at all, that is, no broken one, but is rather the one which most helpfully reaches across toward the figure ofmeaning.

But is it even still possible to build, to vault upward? It is probable that, in accordance with the extraordinary search for expression, certain artisanal and then sculptural and architectonic realizations will triumph over the till now purely painterly element. His novel gaze molds unrecognizable new shapes and moves 31 The Production ofthe Ornament like a swimmer, like a cyclone through the given. There is something beautiful about flowing water, an old tree, even a dark, elevated alpine lake.

It suffices to possess all this in nature, however, where one can also enjoy what art cannot represent, such as air, calculable physical distances, and so on, better than any of the pleasures of art appreciation ever could do.

Everyone should keep this in mind who demands to know of an Expressionist image what it represents: Suddenly I see my eyes, my ears, my state: I myself am this drawer and these fish, I am these fish of a kind that lies in drawers; for the difference vanishes, the distance lifts between the artistic subject and the artistically represented object that is to be reborn to a different materiality than a mere thing's, reborn to its essence as the inmost principle of its potentiality, of all our , ,', potentiality.

Rather, its own need is strong enough to attract whatever husks and markers it needs for support, and images become just our own reemergence, but at another place. For we are gradually becoming blind to the outside. Whatever else we still shape leads back around us. It is a stuff, an alien experience.

But we walk in the forest and we feel we are or could be what the forest dreams. We walk between the tree trunks, small, incorporeal, and imperceptible to ourselves, as their sound, as what could never again become forest or external day and perceptibility. We do not have it-all that this moss, these strange flowers, roots, stems and shafts of light are or signify-because we ourselves are it, and stand too near to it, this ghostly and ever so nameless quality of consciousness or of becoming-inward.

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But the note flares out of us, the heard note, not the note itself or its forms. Yet it shows us our way without alien means, shows us our historically inner path as a flame in which not the vibrating air but we ourselves begin to tremble, and throw off our coats.

As an endless singing-to-oneself, and in the dance. Both are still nameless. They have no life in themselves, and no one personally gave them form. Where one encounters them, they possess the 34 The Philosophy ofMusic 35 appeal of every originary beginning. Of the earliest melodies, very little is known even now. Not even the Greek songs have been preserved to any extent. What has come down to us is mostly charmless and empty. All the players had to confine themselves to the same melody.

The most that was permitted was to sound the root and the fifth, like the bagpipe's drone, and to let them sustain. To be sure, it began quite early to be structured by the congregation's responsorial. For as a whole these assets have entirely depreciated.

It is not much different for the later! Only the traveling minstrels begin to innovate. At least a stroke on the harp was permitted to a troubadour even in eras of the strictest monophony. Even if learned monks discovered all kinds of things-Hucbald and the first intuition that different notes could be sounded together, The Philosophy ofMusic Guido ofArezzo and the beginning of exact notation, Franco of Cologne and the mens ural notation derived from the custom of singing several notes in the descant against one-this all remains academic stuff, whose intrinsic merit can no longer be assessed, as empathy into the objective problems of that time is impossible, and in any case its actual artistry, even in a theoretical sense, was far exceeded by the succeeding, already modern epoch of the Flemings.

But with them, too, the outlook is still dismal. There are certainly smaller pieces by him that are full of surprisingly heartfelt effects, completely reliant on vocal animation. But how dry becomes the bread whenever it becomes more determined to nourish us; how severe remains the voice leading, how unsongful, inexpressive and unmelodic Dufay's and Ockeghem's artful and impressive settings still are!

The text is simply there, without any influence, and the massive intellectual effort remains barrenly closed in on itself. It is a pencil that would perform calculations on its own, and a sinuous figure 8 leading nowhere. It is a study score of unprecedented rank, which might not have lacked a certain laborious power on hearing, but essentially represents only the technical provisions for the entirely different Baroque.

Only thus could Luther's judgment: The new influence came from folk song. Where it was sung in three to six voices, it appeared as the madrigal. Since it remained slight, mostly erotic in content, the originally songful element shifted strongly into the melodious upper voice. Shortly thereafter, the ancient modes begin to be chromatically embroidered. In place of the once delicately interweaving voices, he put a chord clearly defined as soundIng simultaneously, and thus discovered what the Venetians called the aurum potabile, that is, the new potential for a harmonic music in the middle of a still purely contrapuntal age.

Soon after, HaBler brought the new harmonic sound to Germany, in order to adapt its splendor to the polyphonic treatment of Protestant hymns. And so, beginning with Orlando di Lasso, complete freedom has been won. Now all the harshness, imbalance, and indecision is gone: The way that a small number of human voices are grouped together, now, in the Roman chorales, leading back to the most intimate harmonic simplicity; then again, as his more his famous Stabat Mater and even Missa Papae Marcelli show, into the spatial power of the no tes' movement, each imbuing itselfhomophonically: Thus did Orlando di Lasso and Palestrina, as the first musical geniuses, refute academicist construction for its own sake.

The melodic expression, the melody, has been elevated to the sole content of counterpoint: For everything technical moves into the second rank. The sound stands firm, the forge has been built. Progress in Craft There is also something else forcing us to become very vital. Once something has been discovered, later periods have no interest in it or empathy for it as a technical problem or a fresh innovation, if it really was no more than a technical problem; the true particularity [Sosein] of the great composers is thus not defined by the history of musical technique.

Should one specifically say that Mozart is inconceivable without the Mannheim orchestra and opera buffo? Must one still add how Bach clung to the old ways, how clearly he turns away from the ever more mannerly Neapolitan harmonies in order to study the old Flemish and Italian composers instead of Scarlatti? With Beethoven, whose new manner is not at all new technically, things look even more peculiar.

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One has only to recall Hanslick's spiteful chatter about Gluck, against whom he plays off Mozart, or about Mozart, against whom he plays off Rossini, or about Rossini, against whom he plays off Meyerbeer.

In here he is free, brings in only his own soul. This is self-evidently something different again from what circulates among people, what unites them in mere contemporaneity. Only composers of the lower and middle ranks have certain artistic or poetic colleagues, who live alongside them as such and say the same thing in other ways.

Nietzsche sensed this at least pardy when he taught: Indeed, sometimes music rings like the language of a vanished age into an astonished, modern world, and comes too late. Only in the art of the Flemish composers did the soul of medieval Christianity achieve its complete resonance. Only in the music of Beethoven and Rossini did the eighteenth century sing out: In other words, if a composer can feel so independent of the will of his epoch and there is something great and mysterious in the fact that the nineteenth century's two greatest composers were revolutionaries , then it is surely not the essence of the music-what lies beyond Schumann, Mendelssohn, and the merely formal-which can be economically and sociologically categorized.

However beneficial an economic perspective might be in all other cases, or any such perspective, whoever would totalize it in respect of music, errs. It is only possible to explain something in social terms, let alone completely encompass it, where the interpersonal, that is, the socially interested point of view, coincides with its object, such as morality as an ongoing relation between persons, or economy, law, and the state as forms of relations between persons.

Of course even the most novel images tend to be judged more indulgently than the most modern kinds of composition. But the shock soon passes, and the ears that one wanted in all seriousness to have lined with sheet metal the first time one heard Figaro learn new habits; the battle over the principles of the beautiful and the melodic is settled as soon as one leaves one's own rut and seeks out and understands the rules of these new constructs.

How littlt: When a young man is supposed to find the spell that will prevent his suicide, and restore all his lost vital powers, Balzac requires an entire antiquities shop glutted with the past's fashions, inventions, furniture, artifacts and relics as the setting for his miraculous Donkeyskin.

In this sense there flows through music a single current of born equals11m only in the self-evident aspect of their craft, but also in terms of their. Which indeed can be more clearly seen the farther they fall, in other words the closer fall, life, and end are associated?

Because they go deeper, sonic constructs do not simply possess youth as an attribute: Yet all of that is what it is precisely by means of its direction, its anamnesis, its secret system of revolutionary youth emerging, emerging ever further, revolutionary out of a final orthodoxy.

The Problem ofa Historical Philosophy ofMusic That is why musicians must nonetheless be held together, in order that nothing may dissipate. It is fashioned so that the single points that it touches as form are absolutely fixed as existent. The givens and then apparently so different givens have become comprehensive enough that just as the great masters freely used the different forms of song, fugue or sonata insofar as the "spirit" of the relevant passage required it-just in this way we can set Mozart before Bach, or derive from Mozart's, Bach's, Wagner's forms a sequence of composition and its objects, historically unsurpassable, but always to be repostulated.

In terms of time, in other words of mere, brutal successiveness, the differences are of course quite immense. Nowhere does change penetrate as deeply, and most of all The Philosophy ofMusic nowhere does the timespan in which this change takes place have the same vehement tempo and brevity as in music, and nowhere is the road as hopelessly linear, or if one prefers, as hopefully linear as in this art. The Greek column but also the Gothic column, the Homeric epic but also the Old Testament are such basic forms, and Plato's philosophy is one no less, just like Kantian philosophy; that means it suffices to have been the first to have meaningfully explored this region, thus providing an initial model that is at the same time indestructible, exhaustive at least in the fashion of a carpet, a certain perimeter or encirclement, an inventory of all possible content.

The second takes a longer approach: One is reminded here of the tripartite, syllogistic progression of forms in the other arts.

The still more central development, which assuredly explodes the merely formal play of dialectical arrangement: How did we first hear ourselves, then? Both of these, we had said, are still anonymous. They possess, where one comes across them, the charm of a first beginning. That in particular let expression be extensively and securely equipped.

Then of course we can see the cry again, the dance, when an artist reflects on them. They are remainders or promises, either way. Song But everything here still takes place very quietly. So one rounds one's singing delicately.

It may have rung true in the open air, but with Silcher it begins to ring false. Singing abandoned the cry, the dance, and the incantation quite early. Through them the self-enclosed song was established as a soft, homophonically melodious form with the most simple tempi.

It survives in opera, survives because every showpiece begins and ends, and so, from Pergolesi to Offenbach, has its complete, carpet-like pattern, as understandable from the singer's standpoint as from the opera's. On Mozart Mozart is at the head of this splendid line. He is capable of singing gently and enchantingly, of self-enclosed singing. There he knows quite singularly how to speak of himself, of us, insofar as we can be reached there.

In Mozart things become quiet in a different way; night falls and lovely figures draw us into their ranks. Certainly there are unforgettable moments nevertheless: But even this is childhood, at bottom an unproven dream; it is the music of being 17 years old, beyond which adulthood's decline threatens, and which at other moments does not make this art, immanent like a carpet, decisively real, does not force the crisis. Hence Mozart remains the king of a musical South, almost always still reshapable into visibility and plastic delight.

Thus he did not want to be disrupted by melody during his longer strides or motions, nor be led into the distance. They are quite gracefully devised, often with an incredibly great arc of the most splendid intervals, and on the level of detail always so effiorescent and lavish that only Schubert approaches such melodic wealth: The Passions One did not even immediately wish to be moved beyond here.

For when Jesus says: Matthew Passion, and Kierkegaard himself could have found no more powerful sermon for this way of speaking ad hominem, for Christian conduct and the subjectivation of what is Christian.

Here at least there is action, and we see right into the passionate agitation. As with the "Kreuzige! The Philosophy ofMusic 53 Here everything must be played thoroughly songfully, and be clearly filigreed.

But should Bach therefore be regarded in purely scalar terms, with a reticence about chordal combinations? This is what is most easily accessible to the superficial, academic mind, certainly. Similarly, it is also not at all completely true that only the organ, the vocal organ, the orchestral organ, represented the proper sonic image to Bach. Then again not indifferent in the sense that the movements toward such incidents, and their whole, in other words the counterpoint, would now also be the overarching and quintessentially accentuated element.

Certainly, insofar as counterpoint signifies a complete horizontal clarity, it is more the essence of Bach than of Beethoven and Wagner. The necessary result here is that the vitally, melismatically played fugue is also a carpet or corrective. It seems appropriate here, though-in order not to be The Philosophy ofMusic 55 forced against our principles to glide over something-to pause at two points, to emphasize as prototypical two features in Bach: In Mozart it is the mundane self, in Bach the spiritual lelfwhich becomes objective.

But what do we finally hear ourselves for?

Now we soon feel freer. For the note also wants to push toward action.

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It sits more loosely; it tenses and charges. The old cloister breaks; the chaotic world, the: The Philosophy ofMusic Carmen So we move on more easily now. That does not yet mean that individual songs ramble into the distance without lines or demarcations. If we take Carmen, for example, each wild, colorful song is still self-enclosed. But it is characteristic of them that they are not simply set in a row, but rather, without being broken, appear open and mobile, at least insofar as they are able to momentarily follow the course of the action instead of lyrically decorating and arresting it.

One need only recall the exemplary way that a tempo shift changes the expressivity of the Carmen motif. Open Song and 'Fidelio' Of course things are different with the open song.

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It truly began foremost with the late Schubert. But where action is called for, open-ended song also saves the day. Particularly after it became increasingly richly filigrane, carefully filled out.

The sound had been too drab in the recitative, and too longwinded at lyrical moments. Wherever a person intervenes more earnestly in the action, and the action in the person, it therefore becomes necessary more decisively to The PhiLosophy ofMusic 57 break up the lyrical form, and leave it open. So it is in Weber, and even more in Marschner's highly significant Hans HeiLing with its magnificent aria and singular melodrama; above all, however, in Beethoven's FideLio and its enigmatic melody.

For here alone is such excitement permitted: To sing in communion, that was once the need: Of course we saw how human voices in chorus can now only be used as an instrument, but at the same time we realized that the voice is saved as the uppermost, most powerfully expressive part of the orchestra. The text, previously so important, thereby retreats; it becomes like a mesh or backing into which the notes are embroidered, and which can certainly no longer be sug- The Philosophy ofMusic gested or traced by their entwining.

The chorus is a means; it offers itself for these purposes, tempestuous and cathedralic, with the ascending line of the new devotion that extends in an ever more passionate Baroque from Bach's B minor Mass to the "pater omnipotens" of the Missa solemnis, to Bruckner's sacred music, above all his F minor Mass.

The Birth ofthe Sonata Much else has already appeared, and brought new life. Now animated, operatic thought contributes its most characteristic fruit, the sonata.

We know how decisively compositional style changed shortly after Bach. He himself had stood like a strange forest giant among the galant composers, after all.

No longer subordinate to voice leading, freely digressive, ever further from the corporative configuration of the medieval a capella style. Bach's son C. The other parts are there to surround the melody The Philosophy ofMusic 59 from all sides, to let i t submerge and seemingly dissolve itself i n them, in order to then more readily retreat into a subordinate, merely decorative, developmental state.

What unsettles us so deeply here: Brahms and Chamber Music Here those composers became false who loved to murmur, at the same time quite cheaply making themselves clear. Once again the demure songwriters emerged here, became "symphonic," and spread oil on the newly surging waters.


Only one man dissents, sought Beethoven's true trail: A streak that lets Brahms, fiery, somber, deep Brahms, be misunderstood again and again as the speaker and party leader of a prim, Central German bourgeoisie. Music was then in serious danger of declining from a universal concern to an academic affair of the German sitting room, the educated class with all its inhibitions and its barren sentimentality. But it is very lameri'table that Brahms of all people withdrew so cozily into an aversion to all fire.