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The encyclopedia of magic and alchemy pdf

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By Rosemary Ellen Guiley. With greater than entries, this paintings serves as a connection with the historical past of the Western magical. Magic and Alchemy - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read His works are known from an encyclopedia-like compendium of 28 alchemical texts. the encyclopedia of magic and alchemy (pdf) by rosemary ellen guiley (ebook) pages: Boyle in moldm3 cations and, all subdisciplines of something art.


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The encyclopedia of magic and alchemy / Rosemary Ellen Guiley. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN (hc: alk. paper). 1. The encyclopedia of magic and alchemy / Rosemary Ellen Guiley. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN Grade 9 Up—This user-friendly, comprehensive, and informative resource traces the history of Western magic and alchemy, from their origins in ancient Egypt to.

Large Intestines Small Intestines Lungs. This was the beginning of ceremonial magic. Some considered the word alkahest He returned to France, but in Marseilles he was arrestedas an anagram of its true name. Instead of living in small groups and relying on hunting and gathering for food. In the eighteenth century. Taste thou death Apep. In illegitimate son, but Delisle took on the role of stepfather.

The apprentice Skeeve is simply being used to his tasks as court docket Magician of Possiltum. Religion and Magic in Ancient Egypt. Each point of historical Egyptian society-from schooling and legislation to drugs, beginning, and death-was permeated by means of faith and magic, and ruled via divine lifestyles forces of the sunlight and the Nile. The Hero and the Crown. A Newbery Medal WinnerAlthough she is the daughter of Damar's king, Aerin hasn't ever been authorized as complete royalty.

Show sample text content. Ritual Magic. Cambridge collage Press, The orders DAWN. Crowleydissociated part of his own personality. Aiwass made his entrance in April through the C.

Jones, who ran the Vancouver, B. Rose described Aiwass as an magical init iat ions that revealed to him that Aiwass wasemissary of the Egyptian god Horus, son of isis and osir is.

OthersCrowley envisioned Aiwass as a male entity, one distinctly considered Jones to have gone mad. Answers to questions posed by Crowley Furt her Reading: Sutin, Lawrence. Do What Thou Wilt: A Life of Aleister Crow-.

All my wife obtained from Him was to command me to do things magically absurd. He would not play my game: I must play His. The akasha per- Crowley followed the instructions. From all life and sound. From the akasha comes wil l ,sage. During the dictation, Crowley did not see a visual appa- which there are two kinds. One is space that is limited byrition of Aiwass, though he did have a mental impression the material, from which springs the manifestation of theof the entity.

Aiwass had elements of nature.

Index of /public/Books/Ocult/

The second is space that is unlimited, unbounded by the material and beyond description. He seemed occultism in the early 20th century by hel ena p. It produces mesmeric, magnetic, Further, Aiwass seemed dressed in the garb of an Assyr- and psychic phenomena and is a component in all magi-ian or a Persian. The 65 pages Reichenbach. It is the equivalent of the Hebrew ruah, theof handwritten material comprised the three chapters of wind, breath, air in motion, or moving spirit, and is identi-The Book of the Law, which Crowley saw as the herald of cal with the spirit of God moving on the face of the waters.

Each chapter carried the f r anz bar don described the akasha as incomprehensible,voice of an Egyptian deity: In The Akashic RecordsEquinox of the Gods, he acknowledged that he never fully Everything that ever happens throughout the universe—understood the nature of Aiwass. He alternately called the every thought, sound, emotion, action, and so forth—isentity a God or Demon or Devil; a praeterhuman intel- recorded permanently upon the akasha. The Akashic The Akashic Records are consulted for money to support themselves in case their experimentsinformation about past lives, lost civilizations, and other to create gold failed.

He advised discretion because onceplanes of existence. Spiritual beings—perceived by some word of success leaked out, especially to the royalty andas ANGELS—provide assistance in accessing the records.

The American trance psychic Edgar Cayce frequently Albertus Magnus was not a magician, as he wasconsulted the Akashic Records to obtain past-life informa- described by demonologists later on. Cayce sometimes referred which can never be admitted by sober reason. He consulted them to produce his detailed descrip- medicines.

Pdf the alchemy of magic encyclopedia and

Stories of incredible magic are attributed to Albertus See also tat t vas. According toFurt her Reading: Dominic gave him theBlavatsky, H. P The Secret Doctrine. The Theosophi-. Albertus Magnus also reportedly had a magical———. Isis Unveiled. Pasadena, Calif.: Theosophical Univer- stone marked with a serpent, which had the ability to force sity Press, Langley, Noel.

Edgar Cayce on Reincarnation. Cas- According to one tale, he once invited some guests, tle Books, The Essential Steiner. San Francisco: When the guests arrived, they were astonished to see that Alber-Albertus Magnus, St. He assured them that everything would beknown for his theological career; St.

Despite their misgivings, the guests sat down to eat. But its jabberingMary led to a vision in which he received a divine favor of so disturbed Thomas Aquinas in his studies that Aquinasintellectual illumination. He entered the Dominican order in , advanc- Albertus Magnus died on November 15, , and wasing until he was named bishop of Ratisbon in , but buried in Cologne.

He wrote extensively onized in by Pope Pius XI. In his later years, his brilliance faded.

The Encyclopedia of Saints. He believed in the Waite, Arthur Edward. Alchemists Through the Ages. Blauvelt,transmutation of base metals into gol d. In Secretum Secre- N. Rudolph Steiner Publications, Alchemy istransmutation in accordance with the principles of nature. This transmutation was accomplished through the joining of opposites.

The entire chemical process was based on the assumption that all things in nature evolve into their pur- est and highest form. Thus imperfect base metals eventu-An alchemist praying in his laboratory, in Amphitheatrumsapientiae aeternae, by Heinrich Khunrath, Initially, alchemy was a physical art related to metal-lurgy, chemistry, perfumes, dyes, embalming, and so forth. Alchemy is associated with the quest to turn base metalssuch as lead into perfect metals such as silver and gol d.

The heart of alchemy, however, is spiritual: Western and Eastern systems have compa-rable elements, although Western alchemy later gave moreemphasis to the physical transformation of metals.

The impending union of opposite represented by the king and the queen, Sol and Luna. In the vessel are the lady theWestern Alchemy Mercury of the Philosophers and the youth the Sulphur of theWestern alchemy is based on the Hermetic tradition, a syn- Philosophers. Alchemy merely speeds upthe process.

According to early alchemy, all things have a hermaph-roditic composition of two substances: Later European alchemy added a third ingredient,sal t , which corresponds to body.

The transmutation pro-cess involves separating these three essentials and recom-bining them into a different form. The process must bedone according to astrological auspices. By the third century c. Of note is zosimos c. Zosimos traced alchemy tobiblical origins, an idea that gained popularity as alchemyreached its peak in medieval times. Alchemical apparatus, in La theotechnie ergocosmique, by Annibal Barlet, However, the Emerald Tablet had by then passed into Arabic culture, where it continued to evolve.

It was a highly respected science, practiced by adepts who wrote their treatises and manuals in deliberately obscure lan- guage. The term gibberish is derived from the name of a medieval alchemist, jabir ibn hayyan, known as Geber c.

Alchemy thrived in Moorish Spain, where from the 12th century on it spread throughout Europe. By the 15th century, alchemy was a thriving, but not always reputable, practice; Prague became one of the capi- tals of alchemy. Alchemy also took hold in England.

Some European rulers and nobles became obsessed with trans- muting metals into gold in order to increase their personalAlchemists at work, in Coelum Philosoporum, by Philippus wealth and their war chests, especially for the expensiveUlstadius, Fraudu- Monoatomic gold is available for sale. Claims arewith them was exhausted. Little is knownversal Solvent. According to lore, he was born aroundacterized by blackness. Through recombining, other stages b. Sometimes a stage of all possible col- cal work upon which Taoism Daoism is based.

The name was changedalbedo and rubedo. Sometimes the red and white appeared to the Tao Teh Ching sometime during the Western Hansimultaneously. Qian; —86 b. He worked as custodian of the impe-and symbols that had to be interpreted intuitively by the rial archives of the Zhou Chou dynasty in the city ofindividual alchemist. He reportedly granted an interview to Confucius,is perhaps the best example of alchemy explained only who was some 50 years younger, and came to him withthrough images.

The hermaphroditic nature of alchemy questions about rituals. He retiredmale, but some worked with a female partner, usually a from his job when the Chou dynasty began to decline.

The warden of the pass, asked him to write a book The ability to make gold out of lead was more legend- for his enlightenment. Lao Tzu agreed, and the result wasary than factual, but numerous stories circulated about the the Tao Teh Ching. More than 1, commentaries havealleged successes of some alchemists.

How- truth, which is expressed through the masculine and femi-ever, in the early 19th century, alchemy was discredited by nine principles of yang and yin, respectively. These prin-the discoveries of oxygen and the composition of water. The earliest written descriptionc ar l g. According to thedimensions in alchemy. A revival of interest led to alchemy schools and prod- based. Lao Tzu is said to have been inspired by the I Chingucts for cosmetics, herbal medicines, beverages and wines, in his writing of the Tao Teh Ching.

Like Hermetic philosophy, Taoism views humanity as In addition, modern alchemists pursue the Elixir or a microcosm of the macrocosm. There are correspon-life. One of the chief substances believed to accomplish dences between the basic elements of nature and the inter-these goals is a form of gold called monoatomic gold, or nal workings of the human body.

In Chinese medicine, The vati principles, which creates jivan, an enlightened being. Tao- Meditation, breath control, and posture are impor-ist meditation is characterized by several features: Tan-female, or yin, role during mystical union with Heaven, tra is believed to intensify the life force prana, or xi andthe yang principle.

Breath control is of great importance. Meditation andbreathing techniques circulate chi yi the universal life The Importance of Alchemyforce, through the body, purifying it. In the Westerntions from glands and organs.

This forms blood and sexual tradition, the Hermetic philosophy became the basis forenergy ching[xing]. Heat in form of breath transforms magical practices. The traditions of ceremonial magic, or highabdomen, somewhat akin to the kundalini energy of yoga.

It reaches the crown in a highly concentrated state, where See also magic. The chi can be stored for future use. Lao Tzu favored natural breathing, which induces ten- Cockren, A. Lao Tzu considered Downloaded January 8, Goethe the Alchemist: A Study of Alchemicalhighly desirable to breathe as an infant does.

Martino Publishing, The Secret Teachings of All Ages. Reprint,cedes the mystical state of samadhi. Los Angeles: The Philosophic Research Society, It is interesting to note that fetus breathing is similar to Jung, C. Psychology and Alchemy. Princeton, N. Its chief advo- 22— Gregory Palamas c. It is a method of prayer that combines extremely shallow, 8— There are Zolla, Elemire.

The term alem-limation of the vital male force at age 16, when it is at its bic comes from the Arabic term for a still, al-anbiq. Liquids are heated in the bottomvital force, which leads to spiritual immortality. Later Chinese alchemists looked for physical alchemy, and One type of alembic is called the pelican because of itsadded elixirs to their pursuits.

By supernatural means, Lao Tsu gave him a Alfarabi d. She left her husband and departed with Delisle,search of the secrets of al chemy. He said he would rying him. In illegitimate son, but Delisle took on the role of stepfather. Syria he entertained the Sultan Seiffeddoulet and the same Aluys learned the fraudulent alchemical trade fromevening set out on a journey through the desert.

These categories are also referred to as high magic and low magic. This philosophy originated in ancient Egypt and was attributed to the teachings of a god. It covers the basic concepts of magic and alchemy. This book primarily focuses on magic and alchemy as practiced in the Western historic tradition.

The highest magic is the practice that brings one to the realization that the physical world and the inner world of the mind share a connection. If he or she is trying to reach a goal by manipulating others. This book discusses the history of magic and alchemy from the ancient world to modern New Age practices. Although magic and alchemy have been practiced since prehistoric times in most cultures and parts of the world.

In this view any magic that is intended to attain a goal by harming another or even by manipulating another in a seemingly positive way is considered low magic. It was designed to bring one to a mystical state of awareness and although kept in the background of Western culture it has been a continuing influence since its inception.

It also discusses the mystical philosophy that is shared by magic and alchemy. Other than brief mentions. Starting with. Hui builds a small fire and places the wax figure in the flames.

On that day. Hui speaks Greek but when it comes to his religious beliefs he is thoroughly Egyptian and can look back on a year spiritual tradition. It is not surprising. Then he enters the ritual space outside of his house where he would normally pray to the rising sun.

Following the directions in The Book of Overthrowing Apep. Hui picks a lucky day from the calendar for his ritual. As the serpent burns.

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Hui has an infection that is not responding to the medicines prescribed by the healer. Hui recites the words of power from the text. Sunrise is the most powerful time of the day. Like all educated Alexandrians.

Hui draws a serpent in green paint on a clean piece of papyrus and covers the figure in wax. These men and women exist in all traditional tribal cultures and anthropologists.

Place continues to the last lines. Taste thou death Apep. At times people have also called them witch doctors. Hui recites it while facing the rising sun in the east. Robert M. Often the space was circular. Next the shaman used the repetitive sound of a drum or a rattle to enter a trance and go on an inner journey.

To the shaman the spirits and helpers are neither good nor evil. Once the shaman gained this power and formed alliances with spirits. Most prehistoric shamans were concerned with using magic to help with the success of the hunt. Using the sacred center as a place for the mind to enter. This place was a strange. They painted pictures on the walls of caves of the types of animals that the hunters desired. By painting a picture of a deer or a bison.

While on a journey. Even harmful spirits. The details and structure of this world are similar in the reports of shamans from different times and places. The world is normally invisible. By observing the practices of shamans in tribal cultures that still exist. It is believed that this practice was a type of sympathetic magic.

Journeying to this world was something like entering a dream while awake and being able to decide what to do there. To perform his or her magic a shaman prepared a ritual space. People started to perform group rituals guided by priests. Then larger groups of people could live together in villages. The type of magic that the priests practiced made use of elaborate props and clothing and formal ceremonies that.

These included performing rituals for weather magic.

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Shamans adapted to these changes and added magical skills to their practice that addressed the needs of the new groups. In contrast to the intuitive spontaneous visions of the shamans. Instead of living in small groups and relying on hunting and gathering for food. In the Neolithic period. Priests were the first alternative to the shamans. Here is a list of the kinds of things that shamans were. There is a large body of ancient Egyptian texts that have been discovered. Discussing all of these branches falls beyond the limits of this book.

Because of the protection provided by the surrounding desert and the natural rhythm of the Nile. Over 2. As the first civilizations developed. Ancient texts describe Egyptian magicians performing miracles that rival the feats of Moses in the Bible.

This was the beginning of ceremonial magic. Magic in all of these forms existed in every culture in the world. They performed ceremonial magic or prepared charms for a fee. Egyptian culture and religion remained stable for more than 3.

Egyptian civilization bloomed in the fertile valley created by the Nile River in the North African desert. Their priests were famous throughout the ancient world as gifted and wise magicians. In addition to priests. This professional practice coexisted with traditions of folk magic that may have had roots in shamanism.

In Egypt magic and religion were inseparable. By identifying with Osiris and learning from his story every Egyptian hoped to do the same. In the myth of Osiris. He was their role model.

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All of the guests took turns lying in the box. At the banquet Set declared that he would award the beautifully crafted box to the person who fit in it the best. Because he was jealous. Osiris also had a brother. He also taught them magic and other arts and sciences and recorded all of his teachings in the first book. He taught the Egyptians art. Osiris was an excellent pharaoh. As the god of magic and writing. Set decided to kill Osiris. No sooner had Osiris lain down in the box.

For his queen Osiris chose his beautiful sister Isis. His vizier and scribe. She found all of the parts except one but that did not discourage her. By doing these things. Then with the help of Thoth and his words of power. Isis went to Phoenicia and befriended the queen. He found the body of Osiris. Osiris chose instead to become the god of the dead. These were magical acts connected to the myth of Osiris. Again Isis used her magic. Then they carried the box to the Nile and threw it in the river.

Then she returned home with the body of her husband. As the box floated away. When Isis learned that her husband was dead. Isis then mated with him and gave birth to their son Horus. She made a replacement part out of gold and put Osiris back together by wrapping him tightly with linen like a mummy.

The box traveled out to sea and eventually landed on the shore of Byblos. Osiris was proud of Horus and decided to let him take over ruling the land of the living.

Magic and Alchemy

Isis found that the king of Phoenicia had cut down the tamarisk tree and used the trunk. The three principle parts of the soul were the Ka. Seen in the center. Place They wanted to preserve their bodies because they believed that their souls had several distinct parts and some parts would need the body even after they were dead.

On his head he wears the white crown of Upper Egypt. Osiris is wrapped like a mummy except for his arms. His skin is green to symbolize regeneration and his connection to the vegetable kingdom. Place Ka Ba Akh.

Each soul part had a symbolic image that was its hieroglyph but that was also used in magical talismans designed to protect or direct j table 1. Others were images of body parts or organs that were intended as magical replacements in case of loss of the actual part.

Because their names were so powerful. Isis used her magic to create a deadly serpent and left it in the path of the sun god to be sure it would bite him. Words of power were often taken right from the story of Osiris and other gods and were intended to identify the talisman with the story. All talismans were activated through the use of words of power. Table 1. Once stricken by the serpent. Some were representations of the gods or symbols related to hieroglyphs that were designed to represent the beneficial powers of the gods.

Ra could only be saved by Isis. Related to words of power was another magical device: In the myth of Ra and Isis. The Egyptians believed that the name of a person. The more powerful the being the more power the name commanded. To be doubly sure that it was protected. Desiring this power. The Ka is depicted as upraised human arms.

The creator god. Through magic. There were two kinds of talismans. It seems that the Egyptians believed that you could take it with you when you died. They felt that. Isis became one of the most powerful magicians. Evidence of this exists in the famous great pyramids of Egypt.

Equipped with this name. They also provided sculptures or paintings of livestock. Magical names were often inscribed on objects as a type of word of power. All of them had to be empowered through magic rituals. In The Book of the Dead. This was to help the deceased command the spirits and continue on his or her journey. Modern research has confirmed that the great pyramids are deliberately and accurately aligned with the cardinal directions.

Egyptians were awed by the power of art to imitate nature. All of these works of art were created to magically come to life for the deceased and provide the comforts that he or she had enjoyed before death. Besides preserving the body. Egyptian priests used magical art to provide physical comforts for the deceased in the afterlife. All rituals depend on the creation of a magical or sacred space that needs to be oriented toward the four cardinal directions: In numerous tombs the vital organs of a mummy were removed and placed in jars.

The Egyptians used the symbolism of the four sons and the four goddesses to orientate magical structures to the cardinal directions. Large Intestines Small Intestines Lungs. These jars were arranged in square table 1.

It is believed to have represented to the Egyptians the mythological primordial mound from which the earth was created. Most of their sacred structures reflect this awareness in both alignment and symbolism. Each had the head of a different creature.

Heart Liver. Considering the importance placed on the sun. The magician priest is wearing a ritual garment made of leopard skin and using a magic wand.

Egyptian priests performed numerous rituals. By working the magic on the statue he hopes to cause the same effect to happen to the body of the deceased. In an act of sympathetic magic. From left to right. This was considered the most important ritual to aid the deceased.

Place formation to align them to the directions. Their practice is considered the oldest known ceremonial magic. Figure 1.

These malevolent beings are called demons. The Egyptians. Even in tombs. Egyptian art and writing illustrates the vibrant culture of the living.

Even as magic was behind every aspect of funeral art. Although tombs are ideal places for preserving artifacts. Mostly they took the form of monstrous. Some of these were beneficial gods. Place Magic in eveRyday life Because most Egyptian art and literature known today comes from tombs. The facts. She claimed that the ancient Egyptians had placed magical curses on anyone who would rob their tombs and that these curses were backed by secret poisons that were enclosed in the artifacts in such a way that anyone who opened them would suffer the consequences.

Only two weeks after this letter appeared. He found that of the 26 people who had been present at the opening of the tomb six had died and the rest were still alive at that time—not an impressive death toll for a curse.

In February he opened the burial chamber and made one of the most important discoveries of the century. Lord Carnarvon. The chamber was filled with dazzlingly beautiful ancient art that quickly captured the public imagination. It was the tomb of the boy pharaoh Tutankhamun. Most ancient warnings addressed to tomb robbers focused on the damage that they were doing to their souls and did not make threats on their lives. This magical device is also familiar today as a voodoo doll.

This is similar to the ritual in the story of Hui at the beginning of this chapter. Magic was the accepted way of undoing the harm caused by a demon or of protecting oneself from a demon. One of the most effective methods for undoing harm was a type of sympathetic magic in which one made an image of the demon and destroyed it.

Because the Egyptians wrote with pictures. Many of these images are familiar because they are still used in jewelry today. This gave them a unique power in which words and images were combined. Ancient Egyptians were not above using their magical images to cause pain for another person. It is believed that every Egyptian man. To add to this power each talisman had prescribed stones or colors that were recommended for each image. Second there are those that make use of symbols or images.

For this they turned to talismans of stone or ceramic. In the belief that an ounce of protection is worth a pound of cure. In other cultures talismans fall into two categories. First there are those that make use of words written on parchment or engraved on a hard substance. It could be made of various green or blue stones or in ceramic or ivory.

It can also be made of gold. This talisman could be made of lapis lazuli. The Egyptians believed that the Scarab offered its wearer the life renewing power of the sun and the promise of life after death. This talisman was extremely popular and thousands of them have been uncovered. Egyptians wore it to bring them the blessings of Horus: The Egyptians likened its ball to the sun and the beetle became associated with Khepri.

When worn by the dead it would give them access to every place in the underworld. Words of power can be inscribed on its underside. It symbolizes the blood and the words of power of Isis. Place Utchat: This was the most common talisman. It represents the Egyptian dung beetle. Egyptians wore it so that the blood and the words of power of Isis would come to their protection. It can be made of any red stone. It is a representation of the eye of Horus. It was often placed on mummies as protection or a substitute for the heart.

To empower the Tyet it was bathed in an infusion of ankham flowers. This talisman represents the knot or buckle of the girdle of Isis. It could be made of wood or gold. Egyptians wore it to enhance the life force. Some say that the image is derived from a sandal strap or a vertebra. It is also a symbol of Osiris and of his resurrection and.

In Egyptian art every god can be seen carrying it with his or her hand holding the loop like a handle. Place ankh: This is a popular talisman. Egyptians wore it to assure their own resurrection. To be magically consecrated the Tet was bathed in an infusion of ankham flowers. It was commonly made of lapis lazuli or carnelian and laid on the dead to ensure eternal life. What is certain is that it symbolizes life. This talisman depicts a reed tied in a circle to represent the orbit of the sun and.

Its four capitals represent the four directions. This talisman. This was a name composed of the seven Greek vowels written in a triangle so that a single alpha was at the top.

He had been a prosperous merchant for years but now his business was failing and he found himself falling into a deep depression. He wrote: Then with an iron stylus he inscribed his counter curse on a thin sheet of lead.

He asked Hermes to carry his message to the underworld. If he was a modern man. This name could only be pronounced by singing the seven notes of the scale and drawing each one out longer as the chant progressed see next page. Lucian might have decided that he needed the help of a psychotherapist or even a financial advisor.

I bind them in the terrifying name of the demon. Afterward Lucian twisted the lead to activate the curse and went out and buried it in a cemetery.

In the dark of night Lucian threw dill into his fire and summoned Hermes as the messenger and guide of the dead. The first civilized people in this area were the Sumerians. The Middle Eastern traditions stem from the ancient civilizations of the area known as the Fertile Crescent. Around b. Another of their achievements was the construction of artificial mountains in the form of step pyramids called ziggurats. The Sumerians had an advanced culture with distinctive arts and urban centers.

The synthesis of these traditions took place in Alexandria. Many other traditions from the Middle East also contributed to Western magical practice. In b. Unlike Egypt. To the ancient Greeks this eastern end was known as Mesopotamia and it is now part of Syria. This area stretches from the eastern Mediterranean coast that is now part of Syria.

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This was the beginning of the monotheistic biblical tradition that led to the creation of Judaism. From — b. Compared to the Egyptians. During this period. The Babylonians believed that humans were created from the body of a fallen god or demon and that the gods looked on them as their slaves. They used magic to protect themselves from these malevolent influences. They tended to inhabit graveyards. Babylonian demons could take the shape of snakes.

As a result. Eventually their language dominated the region. There they founded a religion that focused on their one tribal god to the exclusion of all others. Babylonian culture. The Akkadians created the oldest written astrological text. The first rule of magical protection in Babylon was to stay on the good side of the gods by conscientiously performing ceremonies to.

After that. Ernest Lehner. Zoroastrianism also gave birth to a complex system of angelology and demonology. The archangels were each assigned an area of protection: Zoroastrianism influenced the angelologies and demonologies of Judaism and Christianity as well as the magical practice of summoning angels and demons.

The Persian religion was founded by the prophet Zoroaster. Babylonians could make an image of the demon and destroy it or let it drift away on the river in a small boat. Humans were asked to come to the aid of Ahura Mazda by promoting good.

If all went well the gods would send a guardian spirit to help. Like the Egyptians. This led to a complex system of correspondences that influenced magic rituals.

Babylonians could protect themselves from demons by wearing talismans sculpted in the likeness of a god. He is thought to have lived in the sixth century b.

The spirits were something like a guardian angel. He viewed the world as an arena of battle between two gods: Ahura Mazda. These were made of the proper stone and attached with the appropriate-colored thread. Known as the Achaemenid Empire. Ahura Mazda commanded six archangels. Once the favor of the gods was established. Lesser angels were given other duties. In the sixth century b. The Babylonians were not the only people to think this way.

The Babylonian creation story is called the Enuma Elish. Emanation is the belief that the creation of the world took place in stages. It took the form of an epic poem that would be recited aloud every year at The Wise King Solomon ccording to legend.

In the Bible Solomon is noted for his wisdom but in the Islamic Koran he is also noted for his magical powers. The Koran says Solomon ruled people and spirits alike. The first is the concept of emanation. It is believed that the signet or Seal of Solomon on his ring was a six-pointed star enclosed in a circle. The Babylonians.

He split her corpse in two and from the halves created the two parts of the world. Ea killed his great-great grandfather. In the beginning the goddess Tiamat. It also recounts how the world evolved into its present state through a process of seven emanations as the gods gave birth to one another. From the summit of the ziggurat. A struggle for domination began in which Tiamat with her new consort. From Lahamu emerged Kishar. She represented the messy chaotic state that existed before the gods imposed order and harmony on the world.

Kishar gave birth to the god Anu. On the seventh day of the Enuma Elish. The newcomers. The j. Marduk was made the king of the gods. She gave birth to Lahmu and Lahamu. Marduk put the world in order and gave the gods their duties.

This battle ended when Marduk killed Tiamat. Tiamat was a dragon-like primitive creature. Many scholars agree that the Bible story is based on the older Babylonian myth. The Enuma Elish recounts how the world was created in seven days by the Babylonian gods. In turn. In the. This practice led to the development of astrology and the discovery of the seven planets. The Babylonians and their predecessors spent a lot of time observing the sky for messages from the gods.

This was because from Earth. To the ancient Babylonians and the people whom they influenced. It plays an important part in the creation in the Enuma Elish and in the Bible. There are actually eight planets in the solar system. The menorah in the ancient Temple of Jerusalem was said to symbolize the burning bush but its seven oil lamps also symbolized the seven days of creation.

How this number came to be so important has to do with the sky. The path they follow is called the ecliptic. With the naked eye. To all ancient peoples.

It is because of these creation stories that there are seven days in the week and the world is still said to have seven continents and seven seas.