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Normally one should use this along with -dBATCH when producing output on a printer or to a file; it also may be desirable for applications where another program is "driving" Ghostscript. The number of threads should generally be set to the number of available processor cores for best throughput. The example above would become. If the value of the system parameter GenericResourceDir is not an absolute path, Ghostscript assumes multiple resource directories. The directory path must end with a file system delimiter. If this happens, try setting useXPutImage to false. Every source pixel has some effect on the output pixels.
If LilyPond encounters any errors or warnings they will be displayed in the LilyPond Log at the bottom of the screen. The Music View has many possibilities: Hovering over notes and other music objects will highlight them in the text on the left window; clicking on them will place a cursor to the left of the object also in the left window.
Use the Ctrl key and your mouse wheel to zoom in and out. Zooming will center around the mouse pointer. Ctrl-left-click-and-hold the mouse to magnify a small section of the Music View without zooming in the whole view. When your music score is complete, run LilyPond once more but with clickable notes turned off: This significantly reduces the size of the PDF.
If LilyPond does not start at all, check if you have installed LilyPond correctly and that the lilypond command is in your system's PATH environment variable. If LilyPond encounters any warnings or errors in your document they will show up in the LilyPond Log window at the bottom of the screen. Frescobaldi will then highlight these lines in the text view where the errors are. In the second tab, Parts , you can compose your score out of many available part types.
Doubleclick a part type to add it to your score or click Add. Select the part in the score list to change some settings for the selected part, if desired. Many parts, especially Choir, have powerful options to set up the score the way you want it.
Click the Preview button to get a preview with some example music filled in. Click OK to copy the generated LilyPond source text to the editor. A special and powerful feature of the Parts tab is hidden in the "Containers" category in the part types list. This category contains the Score, Book and Bookpart types, with which you can setup a LilyPond document containing multiple scores or even books.
You may add Score, Bookpart or Book entries to the score view. They can be nested: Then you can add musical parts. If you want to create multiple scores with exact the same parts, you can just add the parts to the top level of the score view, and then the scores, without adding musical parts to the scores. The scores will then use the parts in the top level of the score. When LilyPond was run in preview mode i. The Music View uses this information to provide smart, two-way integration with the text document:.
You can copy music right from the PDF view to a raster image: See also: Edit in Place , After engraving a score, the Music View does not show the music. With the tools in the Quick Insert Panel you can add various music elements to the current note or selected music.
The Direction chooser specifies if articulations, dynamics or slurs appear in a neutral position e. Click on a tab to select a tool. All buttons in the Quick Insert Panel have configurable keyboard shortcuts; you can change them by right-clicking a button. These musical symbols can be added to a note or rest or a selected range of music.
If you add them to a selection, rests will be skipped. If there is no text selected, the cursor will automatically move to the next pitch, rest, skip or chord.
If Allow shorthands is checked, Frescobaldi will use short signs for articulations if they exist e. Dynamics can also be added to a note or rest.
If you select a range of music, you can add spanners which will automatically terminate at the last note, rest or chord in the selection. If you then click a sign, it will replace the terminator. This tool lets you add arpeggio, glissandos and other spanners like slurs, phrasing slurs, manual beams or trills. Arpeggios and glissandos apply to the current note; they need no music to be selected. The slurs, beams or trill apply to the current note and the next one if no music is selected, or to the first and the last note or chord in the selection.
With the snippets manager you can store often used pieces of text called "snippets", and easily paste them into the text editor. Snippets can be searched by browsing the list or by typing some characters in the search entry.
Snippets can also have keyboard shortcuts applied to them. Some snippets have a special mnemonic short name which you can also type in the search entry to select the snippet. Pressing the Return key will then apply the snippet to the text editor and hide the snippets manager. Add new snippets using Ins. Edit the selected snippet with F2. Snippets can also be put in the menu see Snippet editor. And finally, there are snippets which can include or alter selected text.
Some snippets do this by using special variables, while others are small scripts written in Python. The following variables can be used:. The other lines of the snippet define the text to be inserted in the editor. The following variables are recognized:. Python snippets can read and should set the variable text.
The variable text contains the currently selected text which may be an empty string. To keep a certain group of snippets manageable as a snippet library, you can of course prefix the snippet titles with some sort of special name. But a smarter way is to use a snippet variable. It is suggested to use the " set " variable, and set it to the name of the library you want the snippet to belong to.
Then in the snippet manager, you can easily select all the snippets belonging to the library by entering: And then e. To export snippets, either select them in the snippet manager, or filter the snippets using the search bar and select none, so that all the snippets visible in the snippet manager are exported. You may also drop an XML file on the snippet manager.
A dialog will be displayed where you can select which snippets you want to import. When transposing music, two absolute pitches need to be given to specify the distance to transpose over.
The pitches may include octave marks. The pitches must be entered in the pitch name language used in the document. It is also possible to use the transpose function to change a piece of music from C-sharp to D-flat, or to specify quarter tones if supported in the pitch name language that is used. The transpose function can transpose both relative and absolute music, correctly handling key signatures, chordmode and octave checks.
The rhythm functions of Frescobaldi alter the durations written after notes, chords, rests, etcetera. Font lookup Ghostscript has a slightly different way to find the file containing a font with a given name. First, it looks up the font name in the combined Fontmaps. If this process fails at any step, Ghostscript looks for a file whose name is the concatenation of the value of the FontResourceDir system parameter and the font name, with no extension.
If such a file exists, can be loaded, and defines a font of the desired name, that again is the end. If that fails, Ghostscript then looks for a file on the general search path whose name is the desired font name, with no extension. It goes to the first directory on the list, and it's descendants, looking for all files that appear to contain PostScript fonts also Truetype fonts ; it then adds all those files and fonts to the combined Fontmaps, and starts over.
Finally, if all else fails, it will try to find a substitute for the font from among the standard 35 fonts. Font-name-to-file-name mapping given in Fontmap files; aliases are possible, and there need not be any relation between the font name in the Fontmap and the FontName in the file.
Font-name-to-file-name mapping is implicit — the FontName in the file is used. Aliases are not possible. Only fonts and files named in Fontmap are used. Every Type 1 font file in each directory is available; if TrueType fonts are supported the ttfont. This must be an absolute path. This is ignored if Path doesn't specify a collection. The first font in a collection is 0. Default value is 0. Environment Variables It is also possible to influence the path using standard, or your own environment variables, using the custom Postscript operator getenv.
Format 1: Instead, try something like: To render an UTF encoded text, one must do the following: Provide a True Type font with Unicode Encoding. Notes on specific platforms Word size 32 or 64 bits The original PostScript language specification, while not stating a specific word sise, defines 'typical' limits which make it clear that it was intended to run as a bit environment. However this is, obviously, dependent on the operating system and compiler support available.
Not all builds of Ghostscript will support bit integers, though some bit builds eg Windows will. Unix The Ghostscript distribution includes some Unix shell scripts to use with Ghostscript in different environments.
If the "directory" name ends with a colon ": Although VMS DCL itself converts unquoted parameters to upper case, C programs such as Ghostscript receive their parameters through the C runtime library, which forces all unquoted command-line parameters to lower case.
To preserve the case of switches, quote them like this: This definitely matters if Ghostscript was compiled with DEC C; we are not sure of the situation if you use gcc. Because of this, if you transfer files by FTP, you probably need to do one of these two things after the transfer: If the FTP transfer was in binary mode: MS Windows The name of the Ghostscript command line executable on MS Windows is gswin32c so use this instead of the plain ' gs ' in the quickstart examples.
For example: Xdefaults on Unix in a form like this: Xdefaults Ghostscript doesn't look at the default system background and foreground colors; if you want to change the background or foreground color, you must set them explicitly for Ghostscript. This is a deliberate choice, so that PostScript documents will display correctly by default -- with white as white and black as black -- even if text windows use other colors.
The geometry resource affects only window placement. The font tolerance gives the largest acceptable difference in height of the screen font, expressed as a percentage of the height of the desired font. The palette resource can be used to restrict Ghostscript to using a grayscale or monochrome palette. Ghostscript never preallocates more than half the cells in a colormap.
Working around bugs in X servers The " use Some servers do not implement backing pixmaps properly, or do not have enough memory for them. If you get strange behavior or "out of memory" messages, try setting useBackingPixmap to false. Some servers do not implement tiling properly. This appears as broad bands of color where dither patterns should appear. If this happens, try setting useXSetTile to false. Some servers do not implement bitmap or pixmap displaying properly. This may appear as white or black rectangles where characters should appear; or characters may appear in "inverse video" for instance, white on a black rectangle rather than black on white.
If this happens, try setting useXPutImage to false. X device parameters In addition to the device parameters recognized by all devices , Ghostscript's X driver provides parameters to adjust its performance. Using a client-side pixmap usually provides better performance -- for bitmap images, possibly much better performance -- but since it may require quite a lot of RAM e.
For details, please consult the source file gdevx. Command line options Unless otherwise noted, these switches can be used on all platforms.
General switches Input control filename Causes Ghostscript to read filename and treat its contents the same as the command line.
This was intended primarily for getting around DOS's character limit on the length of a command line. Switches or file names in the file may be separated by any amount of white space space, tab, line break ; there is no limit on the size of the file.
Takes the next argument as a file name as usual, but takes all remaining arguments even if they have the syntactic form of switches and defines the name ARGUMENTS in userdict not systemdict as an array of those strings, before running the file. When Ghostscript finishes executing the file, it exits back to the shell.
On some systems, Ghostscript may read the input one character at a time, which is useful for programs such as ghostview that generate input for Ghostscript dynamically and watch for some response, but can slow processing. However, ' - ' is equivalent on most systems. Interprets arguments as PostScript code up to the next argument that begins with " - " followed by a non-digit, or with " ".
For example, if the file quit. Each argument must be valid PostScript, either individual tokens as defined by the token operator, or a string containing valid PostScript. Since this is the default behavior, -f is useful only for terminating the list of tokens for the -c switch. File searching Note that by "library files" here we mean all the files identified using the search rule under " How Ghostscript finds files " above: This is now the default.
The value must be a valid PostScript token as defined by the token operator. If the token is a non-literal name, it must be true, false, or null. It is recommeded that this is used only for simple values -- use -c above for complex values such as procedures, arrays or dictionaries.
Note that these values are defined before other names in systemdict, so any name that that conflicts with one usually in systemdict will be replaced by the normal definition during the interpreter initialization. This is different from -d. Note that this causes documents of other sizes to be clipped, not scaled: Suppress messages -q Quiet startup: Parameter switches -d and -s As noted above, -d and -s define initial values for PostScript names.
Their use is highly recommended for producing high quality rasterizations. The subsampling box size n should be 4 for optimum output, but smaller values can be used for faster rendering. Antialiasing is enabled separately for text and graphics content.
Allowed values are 1, 2 or 4. Subpixels are a smaller raster grid which is used internally for text antialiasing. It controls grid fitting of True Type fonts Sometimes referred to as "hinting", but strictly speaking the latter is a feature of Type 1 fonts. Setting this to 2 enables automatic grid fitting for True Type glyphs. The value 0 disables grid fitting. The default value is 2. For more information see the description of the user parameter GridFitTT.
If accurate colors are desired, it is recommended that an ICC workflow be used. Useful only on very slow systems where color accuracy is less important. This switch is primarily useful for PDF creation using the pdfwrite device when retaining the color spaces from the original document is important. ICC profiles are sometimes embedded by applications to convey the exact input color space allowing better color fidelity.
These psuedo operators are not a part of the official Postscript specification. These psuedo operators are required for some files from QuarkXPress.
However some files from Corel 9 and Illustrator 88 do not operate properly if these operators are present. DoPS has in fact been deprecated for some time. Use of this option is not recommended in security-conscious applications, as it increases the scope for malicious code.
This may be useful when printing documents on a printer that can handle their requested paper size but whose default is some other size. Useful only for compatibility with Adobe printers for loading some obsolete fonts. See "Precompiling fonts" in the documentation on fonts for details.
This is probably useful only for debugging. This may be useful in environments without a file system. This may be useful for debugging. This may be needed if the platform fonts look undesirably different from the scalable fonts. This may be needed to ensure consistent rendering on the platforms with different fonts, for instance, during regression testing.
Specifies alternate name or names for the Fontmap file. Note that the names are separated by ": Also, in this case, the font returned by findfont is the actual font named fontname , not a copy of the font with its FontName changed to the requested one.
The font specified fontname will be embedded instead, limiting all future users of the document to the same approximate rendering. New CFF parser is coded in C and uses direct access to the font data. This option and the old parser will be removed when the new parser proves its reliability.
The value is platform dependent. It must end with a directory separator. Default value is. It's meaning is similar to GenericResourceDir. Interaction-related parameters -dBATCH Causes Ghostscript to exit after processing all files named on the command line, rather than going into an interactive loop reading PostScript commands.
Equivalent to putting -c quit at the end of the command line.
This may be useful on PC displays that get confused if a program attempts to write text to the console while the display is in a graphics mode. Normally one should use this along with -dBATCH when producing output on a printer or to a file; it also may be desirable for applications where another program is "driving" Ghostscript.
This allows piping input directly into Ghostscript, as long as the data doesn't refer to currentfile. This is currently necessary when redirecting device output to standard output.
This may be useful if input is coming from a pipe. Permission errors can be avoided by adding the device to the permitted reading list before invoking safer mode. This is usually useful only when running PostScript code whose purpose is to compute something rather than to produce an output image. This switch instructs all devices to ignore a request to print multiple copies, giving more consistent behaviour.
Refer to the SavedPages document for details. This is useful when converting an EPS file to a bitmap. This is useful for shrinking or enlarging an EPS file to fit the paper size when printing. With this interface it is possible to provide this definition. The colorants tag order in the ICC profile defines the lay-down order of the inks associated with the profile. A windows-based tool for creating these source profiles is contained in. Care should be taken to ensure that the number of colorants associated with the device is the same as the profile.
If this is not set, an appropriate profile i. In this case, spot colors will pass through unprocessed assuming the device supports those colorants. In this case, the list of the colorant names in the order that they exist in the profile must be provided with this command line option. Note that if a colorant name that is specified for the profile occurs also within the document e.
If restricted, the other spot colorants will go through the alternate tint transform and then be mapped to the color space defined by the NCLR profile. See the document GS9 Color Management for details about this option.
This profile is used following the output device profile. Care should be taken to ensure that the output device process color model is the same as the output color space for the device link profile. In addition, the color space of the OutputICCProfile should match the input color space of the device link profile.
While the ICC does define a named color format, this structure can in practice be much more general. Many developers wish to use their own proprietary-based format for spot color management. An example implementation is currently contained in the code for the handling of both Separation and DeviceN colors. For the general user this command option should really not be used.
A setting of 0 will result in less accurate color rendering compared to a setting of 2. However, the creation of a transformation will be faster at a setting of 0 compared to a setting of 2. Default setting is 2. This is only valid when using littleCMS for color management. Fill, Stroke operations. This can be used to obtain more saturated colors for graphics.
The options are the same as specified for -dRenderIntent. The options are the same as specified for -dKPreserve. This can be used to obtain perceptually pleasing images. This can be used ensure K only text. Note that if no profiles are specified for the default Device color spaces, then the system default profiles will be used.
The specification is made through a file that contains on a line a key name to specify the object type e. It is also possible to turn off color management for certain object types, use device link profiles for object types and do custom color replacements. An example file is given in. Profiles to demonstrate this method of specification are also included in this folder. Note that if objects are colorimetrically specified through this mechanism other operations like -dImageIntent, -dOverrideICC, have no affect.
See further details in the document GS9 Color Management. This may not always be desired. In particular, it may be desired to map from the gray ICC profile specified by -sDefaultGrayProfile to the output device profile.
The default setting is true. Note that not all spot color overprint cases can be accurately simulated with a CMYK only device. For example, a case where you have a spot color overprinted with CMYK colors will be indistiguishable from a case where you have spot color equivalent CMYK colorants overprinted with CMYK colors, even though they may need to show significantly different overprint simulations.
To obtain a full overprint simulation, use the psdcmyk or tiffsep device, where the spot colors are kept in their own individual planes. If this option is included in the command line, source device color values e. In addition, if the output device color model matches the output intent color model, then the destination ICC profile will be the output intent ICC profile.
If there is a mismatch between the device color model and the output intent, the output intent profile will be used as a proofing profile, since that is the intended rendering. It is possible to specify a particular output intent where int is an integer a value of 0 is the same as not specifying a number.
Probing of the output intents for a particular file is possible using extractICCprofiles.
Finally, note that the ICC profile member entry is an option in the output intent dictionary. In these cases, the output intent specifies a registry and a standard profile e. Ghostscript will not make use of these output intents. Instead, if desired, these standard profiles should be used with the commands specified above e. The directory path must end with a file system delimiter. Useful only for certain specialized packages like pstotext that redefine operators.
See the documentation for. Normally, pdfmark is only called for these types for PostScript files or when the output device requests it e. Useful only for debugging. The vmreclaim operator is not disabled.
The decision to halftone depends upon the output and source resolution as well as the output and source color space. This is necessary when running special utility programs such as font2c and pcharstr , which must bypass normal PostScript access protection. Improving performance Ghostscript attempts to find an optimum balance between speed and memory consumption, but there are some cases in which you may get a very large speedup by telling Ghostscript to use more memory.
Banding Parameters. With some PDF files, or if you are using Chinese, Japanese, or other fonts with very large character sets, adding the following sequence of switches before the first file name may dramatically improve performance at the cost of an additional memory. For example, to allow use of 30Mb of extra RAM use: This overrides the compiled-in default, but is overridden by any commandline setting. Debugging The information here describing is probably interesting only to developers.
Debug switches There are several debugging switches that are detected by the interpreter. Each of the xxx characters selects an option. Case is significant: Visual Trace Visual Trace allows to view internal Ghostscript data in a graphical form while execution of C code. There are two important incompletenesses of the implementation: A guide to international paper sizes can be found at http: In this environment, the relevant section of the resource file should look like this: The second element is a dictionary with entries: FontType interger PostScript type for this font.
Only 1 and 42 are currently allowed. Note that this is unrelated to the real type of the font file - the bridge will perform a format conversion. FAPI name Name of the renderer to be used with the font. It is being ignored if Path doesn't specify a collection.
Decoding name optional The name of a Decoding resource to be used with the font. Example of a general FAPI font map record: The format is similar to FAPIfontmap , but dictionaries must contain few different entries: Only 0, 1 and 2 are currently allowed.
Note that this is unrelated to the real type of the font file - the bridge will perform format conversion. The first element is a string, which specifies Ordering. The second element is a number, which specifies Supplement. Used to resolve relative paths in FAPIfontmap. You can download the pdf of this book. This book is an expression of gratitude to all ROS community members. We hope this book help on that effort and look forward to everything we can do with you in the future.
We tried to make this a comprehensive guide that covers all aspects necessary for a beginner in ROS. Topics such as embedded system, mobile robots, and robot arms programmed with ROS are included. For those who are new to ROS, there are footnotes throughout the book providing more information on the web. Through this book, we hope that more people will be aware of and participate in bringing forward the ever-accelerating collective knowledge of Robotics Engineering.
We have tried to offer detailed information we learned while working on TurtleBot3 and OpenManipulator. We hope this book will be the complete handbook for beginners in ROS and more people will contribute to the ever-growing community of open robotics.